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推理题

推理题就是根据文章陈述的事实,利用综合的、逻辑的及文化的线索挖掘未知成分的含义。它与细节题相似,也是对文章具体内容的判断;但推理不但要求掌握文章所表达的字面含义,还要掌握一定的逻辑判断能力及写作知识,从文章表面推出更深层含义。阅读理解测试中涉及推理的面很广泛,凡是没有明确表达的意思,属于字里行间隐含的意思都属于推理的范围。这部分题往往出题份量大,难度大,出错也最多,考生在做这类题时首先要尽量避免干扰项的干扰。通常情况下,干扰项有以下特征:

1. 照抄原文而没有经过分析推断得出的结论;

2. 不依据关键词或关键句子而凭空推断的结论;

3. 符合常识但在原文中找不到依据的选项;

4. 与原文内容明显矛盾的选项。

考生在答题时应随时警惕具备这些特征的干扰项,深层理解文章含义,逐一排除干扰项,确定正确答案。在推理词中常出现的词有“infer, imply, suggest, conclude, assume, show”等。

是非题常见的提问方式有:

The passage implies / suggests / shows that ________.

It is implied / suggested / indicated in the passage that ________.

It can be inferred / seen /concluded from the passage that ________.

The author implies / suggests / indicates that ________.

We can learn / conclude from the passage that _________.

Which of the following can be concluded from the passage?

Which of the following conclusions could best be drawn from the passage?

Based on the passage, we can assume / presume that ________.

The writer implies but not directly states that ________.

请看以下的实例分析:

【例1】

I was ten years old that Saturday in 1963. There was a knock at the door, and after I opened it I was surprised to see a group of five strange men standing there. I quickly shut the door and ran to get my father. I had been told many times before not to answer the door unless one of the my parents had told me to, and now I understood why: these five men were without a doubt the first fifth of that famous “25 robbers at my door” from the old hide-and-seek rhyme(童谣), and I had almost let them in!

In fear I said something to my father about a group of robbers at the door, and he said, “Good. They’re right on time.” Much to my shock, Dad not only let them in but also shook all of their hands.

The men all worked at Fisher Body Plant No.1 with my father, and they sat where he told them to at our dining room table. Dad then passed out pencils and paper and, from a box he had brought home earlier that day, handed each of them a printed sheet of paper with a series of math questions on it.

“We’ll start with fraction,” Dad said. “How to find the lowest common denominator(公分母)…”

The men came for three hours every Saturday, Sunday, Wednesday and Friday for the next two months. Dad explained that they had taken a test at the factory to be promoted to skilled jobs and none had passed the math part. This test was said to be the reason why there was a very small percentage of African-Americans in any skilled job at Fisher Body. Dad said he knew they could do the job if they were given a chance. I understood what my father was doing, but t wasn’t until many years later that I appreciated it.

I remember the great joy on my father’s face when he came home from work one day and told my mother, “They all passed! The managers even want John to take the test again. They think he cheated somehow. He scored perfect on the math!”

Question:

We may infer from the story that ________.

A) the boy’s father passed the test too

B) the boy’s father helped John to cheat on the test

C) John did unbelievably well on the math test

D) John must have cheated on the test

这是一道典型的推理题。要正确解答这道题目,关键在于文章的最后一段,但前提是必须对文章前面的内容也有所了解。在前面几段文字里,作者讲述了他父亲帮助五个美国黑人学习算术以使他们能够通过公司里的升职考试。而在文章的最后一段,作者提到那五个受到父亲帮助的无何人全都通过了考试,而John被要求重新考试,并不是因为他作弊了,而是因为他考了满分(scored perfect)所以公司不相信这是真的”。由此我们可以推断出四个选项中,A)、B)、D)都不正确,只有C)与题意相符。

【例2】

Every artist knows in his heart that he is saying something to the public. Not only does he want to say it well, but he also wants it to be something that has not been said before. He hopes the public will listen and understand – he wants to teach them, and he wants them to learn from him.

What visual artists (视觉艺术家) like painters want to teach is easy to see but difficult to explain, because painters turn their experiences into shapes and colors, not words. They seem to feel that a certain selection of shapes and colors, out of the countless billions possible, is particularly interesting for them and worth showing to us. Without their work, we would never enjoy these particular shapes and colors, or feel the delight which they brought to the artist.

Most artists take their shapes and colors from nature and from human bodies in motion and rest; their choices indicate that these aspects of the world are worth looking at, and that they contain beautiful sights. Some present-day artists might say that they merely choose subjects that provide an interesting pattern, and that there is nothing more to it. Yet these artists do not completely ignore the character of their subjects.

If one painter chooses to paint a gangrenous (腐烂的) leg and another a lake in moonlight, each of them is directing our attention to a certain aspect of the world. Each painter is telling us something, showing us something, emphasizing something – all of which means that, consciously or unconsciously, he is trying to teach us.

Question:

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A) A painting is more easily understood than a poem.

B) Art is merely the arrangement of shapes and colors.

C) Present-day artists always try to persuade the public.

D) One should look beyond shape and color to find what the artist is saying.

要正确解答这道推理题,考生应该通读全文以确定每个选项是否正确。考生可以从第二段第一句话“What visual artists like painters want to teach is easy to see but difficult to explain (我们不难看出像画家那样的视觉艺术家想要教我们的,但却很难解释清楚)”判断选项A)是与文章内容不相符合的。至于选项B),考生可以参考第三段的最后两句话“Some present-day artists might say that they merely choose subjects that provide an interesting pattern, and that there is nothing more to it. Yet these artists do not completely ignore the character of their subjects.”,从这里,考生可以得知这些艺术家从未完全忽视这些对象的性质,由此可以排除选项B)。同样,考生可以从第三段的最后两句话判断出选项C)也是不正确的。考生在通读全文,尤其是最后一段最后一句话“Each painter is telling us something, showing us something, emphasizing something – all of which means that, consciously or unconsciously, he is trying to teach us.”后就可以得知艺术家都会有意识无意识地交给我们一些东西,从此我们可以推断人们在欣赏作品时应该试图获悉艺术家所要表达的意思,而不仅仅是颜色和形状,因此选项D)在这里是正确答案。

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