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是非题

是非题是考试中测试深层理解能力的重要形式。这种题型主要考查考生对文章中一些似是而非的东西理解得是否全面。其出题方式主要有两种:一是以不完全句的形式对文中的某种事实和观点的隐含意思进行深层挖掘,以判别正误;二是题干以问句形式出现,让考生判断四个选项的正误。在做这类题目时,考生应注意要紧密联系文章内容,从文章当中去寻找判断正误的根据,而不能单凭自己的主观臆断来做题。

是非题常见的提问方式有:

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

Which of the following would NOT be an example of ________?

All of the following were mentioned in the passage EXCEPT ________.

According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT ________.

Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?

请看以下的实例分析:

【例1】

Much attention has been given in the media(媒体)to the so-called information superhighway(信息高速公路)which is supposed to use computer and telecommunications(电信)technology to completely change the way America will be doing business and receiving information and entertainment at home in the future. There have been countless newspaper and magazine articles, television and radio discussions, meetings and conferences about it. However, according to a public opinion poll(民意测验), most Americans would say they had never heard of it.

The people who conducted the poll didn’t actually talk to most Americans, of course, but they did talk to 1,255 individuals, and they say the result has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points. But even if it’s off by three percentage points, it’s still amazing. Two-thirds of Americans don’t recall having heard of the information superhighway. And, even among the 34 percent who have heard of it, most say that they have little understanding of what it is. But even though most of those who’ve heard of it don’t know what it is, six out of ten of them say they’re for it.

It seems very odd that people can admit that they don’t know what something is and yet say they are for it, or against it, for that matter. It generally works out better when you find things out, rather than this business of liking something before finding out what it is. This is the way they judge everything these days. They are entitled(有权)to an opinion about everything whether they know about it or not.

Unfortunately, this is the way political leadership works today: the so-called leaders read the polls to find out what the people want and here’s a poll telling us that the people are ready to say what they want without knowing the first thing about it. This is the blind leading the blind. No wonder things are the way they are.

Question:

According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?

A) Most Americans don’t really know what information superhighway is.

B) Two-thirds of Americans know a little about the information superhighway.

C) Most Americans have heard of information superhighway.

D) 60% of the Americans are for the idea of information superhighway.

这道是非题主要是针对文章的第一、二两段内容来设计的,考生只需要在这两段内容里找出相应的证据来确认或排除这四个选项。从文章的第一段的最后一句话“However, according to a public opinion poll(民意测验), most Americans would say they had never heard of it(然而根据民意测验,大部分美国人说他们从来都没有听说过这个东西(信息高速公路)).”可以看出选项A)是符合题意的,应该为正确答案;而在第二段里的一句话“Two-thirds of Americans don’t recall having heard of the information superhighway (三分之二的美国人都想不起曾经听说过信息高速公路).”除了进一步证明了选项A)的正确性之外,也说明了选项B)的不合理性;至于第三个选项因为是和第一个选项相矛盾的,在肯定了第一个选项的正确性的同时毫无疑问也就证明了此选项的不合理性;选项D)有很强的干扰性。解答此题时考生首先要明确原文里第二段的最后一句话“But even though most of those who’ve heard of it don’t know what it is, six out of ten of them say they’re for it.”中的人称代词“them”所指的是那一部分人。根据上下文,考生可以看出,作者在前文说“even among the 34 percent who have heard of it, most say that they have little understanding of what it is.”,然后在接下来的这一句继续提到“even though most of those who’ve heard of it don’t know what it is, six out of ten of them say they’re for it”,所以此处的“six out of ten of them”指的应该是这34%的听说过信息高速公路的人当中的60%的人,而不是全美国的60%的人支持信息高速公路。如果不弄清楚这一层指代关系,考生则很容易将此选项误选为正确答案。

【例2】

Crime has its own cycles, a magazine reported some years ago. According to the police records that have been studied for five years from over 2400 cities and towns, a surprising link is shown between changes in the season and crime patterns. The pattern of crime has varied very little over a long period of years. Murder reaches its high during July and August, as do other violent attacks. Murder, moreover, is more than seasonal: it is a weekend crime. It is also a nighttime crime: 62 percent of murders are committed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Unlike the summer high in crimes of bodily harm, robbing has a different cycle. You are most likely to be robbed between 6 p.m. and 2 a.m. on a Saturday night in December, January or February. The month with least crimes of all is May – except for one strange fact. More dog bites are reported in this month than in any other month of the year.

Apparently our seasonal cycles of knowledge are completely different from our tendencies for crimes. Professor Huntington made extensive studies to discover the seasons when people read serious books, attend scientific meetings and get highest results on examinations. In all cases, he found a spring high and autumn high separated by a summer low.

Possibly, high temperature and high humidity (湿度) cause our strange and violent summer actions, but police officials are not sure. “There is, of course, no proof of a connection between humidity and murder,” they say. “Why murder’s high time should come in the summer time we really don’t know.”

Question:

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A) It is not certain whether there is a connection between humidity and murder.

B) Murder and robbery mainly occur in summer.

C) There is no proof that murder frequently occurs in summer.

D) High temperature and high humidity lead to high crime rate in summer.

该题是典型的是非题,要求考生通阅全文来判断哪一句陈述是对的。考生在解答这一问题时,应该对每一选项逐一进行判断。文章第四段中第二句话“There is, of course, no proof of a connection between humidity and murder.”表示“没有证据可以表明湿度和谋杀之间有联系”,这样,考生可以得知选项A) It is not certain whether there is a connection between humidity and murder (我们不能肯定湿度和谋杀之间是否有联系)和该句话的意思相符,因此为正确选项。从第二段第二句话“You are most likely to be robbed between 6 p.m. and 2 a.m. on a Saturday night in December, January or February.”,考生可以得知抢劫案经常是发生在十二月、一月或二月的,而不是在夏天,因此,选项B)是错误选项。从第一段第四句话“Murder reaches its high during July and August, as do other violent attacks.”,考生可以得知根据警察局提供的数据,谋杀案发率在七月和八月达到最高峰,而选项C)与这一事实不符,因此也是错误选项。考生可以从最后一段中可以得知:高温度和高湿度与犯罪率的高低是否有联系还不确定,因此,选项D)也不符合文章内容,是错误选项。

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