课程首页|统考文件|知识体系|在线课堂|分项练习|模拟考试|大纲词汇|英文打字练习

你已学习:

知识体系>>阅读技巧

细节题

细节题在阅读理解考试中所占的比重相当大,细节题的内容包罗万象,有什么样的内容就有什么样的细节。这类问题要求考生理解与文章有关的事实依据,赞同或反对的理由,以及找出其他有关的细节或具体的数据等。

命题者在设计阅读理解题时,其先后次序往往与文章中的细节和事实出现的次序相符和。考生如果能够对一篇阅读文章的主题/中心思想和文章的整体组织结构有了正确的理解,那么在回答细节题时就会更加得心应手。

在回答这类问题时,考生应该采用查读法。在查读时,考生注意寻找与题干相关的关键词语,然后在充分理解原文、原题的基础上确定正确答案。具体来说,考生可以采取一下的途径来解答这类问题:

1. 快速定位,即利用题干中的关键词快速在文中找到对应的词或句子,在对应的词或句子的周围查找答案;

2. 在重要的词汇上做记号或下划线,如表示时间与年代的词;表示条件、目的、方法、步骤、原因等词;表示人命、地名或其他的专有名词;数据;某些副词(如:always, seldom, absolutely, entirely, relatively, particularly, hardly, merely, virtually等等);

3. 在某些重要的句子结构上做记号或下划线,如同位语、插入语、定语、不定式等;

4. 留意表示条件、递进、转折、例证、原因、总结等语标词,它们均与细节有关。

细节题常见的提问方式有:

What causes …?

Why does the author mention …?

The author gives this example to illustrate …?

Which of the following are people allowed to do?

What do we know about …?

Which of the following best characterizes the main feature of ________ ?

事实上,很多细节题都不是以特殊疑问句的形式为提问方式的,这一点考生应该注意。

请看以下的实例分析:

【例1】

The UN(联合国)was started for two reasons. First, when the idea was born, people all over the world were tired of war. They were tired not just of World War II, but of war itself. They felt that there must be peaceful answers to the world’s problem. They felt that only an international organization could keep world peace.

The second reason was that modern science had developed new bombs and airplanes. These weapons made it almost possible for a country to defend itself. National borders were beginning to lose their meaning. There was also a feeling that this was only the beginning. Science would develop even more dangerous weapons in the future. Only an international organization would be able to control modern science.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was President of the united states at that time, believed that the Allies(同盟国)should plan for peace before the war ended. On December 1, 1943, Roosevelt, Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union agreed to start an organization for world peace. They asked all countries, large and small, to join them.

During the next year and a half, the idea of such an organization was debated in all the capitals of the world. Then came a big day in modern history. On April 11, 1945, the first international meeting of the United Nations took place in San Francisco.

The goal of the meeting was to write the UN Charter(宪章). All of the fifty-one nations at the meeting had their own ideas to offer for the Charter. After a long debate, a Charter was agreed upon. Every nation present voted for the Charter; no one voted against it.

Questions:

1. The UN was started to ________.

A) help to promote world economy

B) keep world peace

C) form an international organization

D) assist developing countries

2. The founding of the UN was planned by ________.

A) Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union

B) The U.S.A., the Soviet Union and France

C) The U.S.A., the Soviet Union and China

D) the U.S.A., the Soviet Union and Great Britain

3. The preparation for the founding of the UN lasted ________.

A) half a year                              B) a year and a half

C) two years                              D) about a year

4. The aim of the first meeting of the UN was ________.

A) to elect chairman of the UN

B) to discuss world peace

C) to write the UN Charter

D) to end the war

5. The first international meeting of the UN was held in ________.

A) New York                              B) Moscow

C) Los Angeles                           D) San Francisco

这五道题目全部都是细节题。第1个问题考查的是考生对成立联合国的目的的理解,也就是考查考生对文章的第一、二两个段落的理解。文章在第一段提到了成立联合国的第一个原因,即是为了建立一个国际组织来维护世界和平;第二段讲到的是成立联合国的第二个原因,即随着科学的发展将来可能会有更加有威胁性的武器被发明出来,这就需要一个国际组织来对此进行控制。综合这两点原因,然后再看题干所提供的四个选项,考生不难判断这里只有选项B)符合要求;第2题考查的是联合国最初是由哪几个国家发起的。此题可以在第三段里找到答案。这一段中有句话说,“On December 1, 1943, Roosevelt, Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union agreed to start an organization for world peace.”,所以由此可见,联合国的最初发起国应该是U.S.A.,Great Britain和the Soviet Union,因此答案应该为D);第3题问的是联合国的筹建花了多长时间,考生可以在第四段找到答案。在这一段里,文章说,“在接下来的一年半里,在世界各国都展开了辩论,要不要建立这样一个国际性组织,随后历史上值得纪念一天就来到了。在1945年4月11日,联合国第一次会议在美国旧金山召开”。由此可见,从1943年12月1日提出筹建联合国到联合国召开第一次会议,共历时一年半,所以此题应该选B);第4题考查的是第一次联合国大会的主要目的是什么,考生可以从文章最后一段的第一句话轻而易举的找到答案。这里文章说,“这次大会的目的是撰写《联合国宪章》”,所以答案应该是C)。最后一题问的是第一次联合国大会是在哪里召开的,此题答案出现在第四段的最后一句话,即上面所提到的“1945年4月11日,联合国第一次会议在美国旧金山召开”,由此可见,此题答案应该为D)。

【例2】

When I told my family that I was thinking of taking a cooking job, the roars of laughter were rather discouraging. No one believed that I could cook at all, as I had never had a chance to practice at home. Our cook had ruled in the kitchen for thirty years and had an annoying tendency to regard the pans, stove and all the kitchen fittings as her own property.

I once crept down there when I thought she was asleep in her room to try out an omelet(炒蛋). Noiselessly I removed a frying pan from its hook and the eggs from their cupboard. It was the pop of the gas that woke her, I think, for I was just breaking the first egg when a pair of slippered feet moved round the door and a shriek(尖叫)of horror caused me to break the egg on the floor. This disaster upset her so much that she locked herself in the storeroom with all the food and we had to make our Sunday dinner of bananas.

If the family weren’t going to be helpful, I would look for a job all by myself and not tell them about it till I’d got one. I had seen an agency in a local paper, so as soon as there was no one about to say “Where are you going?” I rushed out of the house in search of it.

I sat on the edge of a chair and could see my nose shining out of the corner of my eye. I thought perhaps it was a good thing; it might look more earnest. The woman at the desk examined me through her glasses. Having asked me a few questions, she told me that it would be difficult to get a job without experience. “But”, she said, “I’ve got someone who needs a cook badly.” She wrote down a number, and my spirits went up as I took the slip of paper she held out to me, saying: “Ring up this day. She wants a cook. You would have to start tomorrow by cooking dinner for ten people. Could you manage that?”

“Oh yes,” said I --- never having cooked for more than four in my life.

Questions:

1. Which of the following best describes the response of the author’s family to her plan of taking a cooking job?

A) Pleased.                                    B) Doubtful.

C) Uncomfortable.                          D) Positive.

2. One reason for the author’s lack of practice in cooking was that ________ .

A) no one in her family would like her to practice cooking

B) everything in the kitchen was property belonging to the cook

C) the cook would never allow her to do any cooking

D) she was not yet born when the cook came to the house

3. The cook felt uncomfortable when ________ .

A) she heard a shriek of horror

B) she heard the sound of a pair of slippered feet moving round the door

C) she saw the author enter the kitchen

D) she saw the author break an egg on the floor

4. The family had to have bananas for dinner that Sunday because ________ .

A) the cook was on strike

B) they preferred bananas to omelet

C) the author cooked so badly

D) no one in the family had cooking ability

5. When there was no one about, the author rushed out of the house because ________ .

A) she was independent in searching for a cooking job

B) she wouldn’t answer the question her family would ask

C) that was the only chance for her to leave the house

D) she didn’t want to reveal what she was going to do

此处5道题目同样都是细节题。第1题是一个反应判断题,要求考生判断作者的家人对待作者要找一份厨师的工作是作如何反应的。解答此题的根据在文章的第一段的开头部分。作者在这里写到:“当我告诉家人我想要找一份厨师的工作的时候,他们所爆发出来的笑声实在是令人泄气。根本就没有人相信我会做饭,因为我在家里从来都没有机会作此尝试。”根据这些内容,考生可以来对题干所提供的四个选项进行排除和选择。选项A)是“开心的”,很明显与文章内容不符,因为文章里的“laughter”根本不是开心的笑,所以此项可以排除;B)是“怀疑的”,与文章意思相符,因为作者在文章里说“没有人相信她会做饭”,所以可以推断出对于她要找一份厨师的工作,家人必定持怀疑的态度;所以B)为正确答案;C)说是“不舒服的”,这种推测毫无根据,可以很快将其排除;至于D)说是“积极的,肯定的”,更是与原文意思相背,所以也不正确。第2题是一道原因分析题,题干问到的是为什么作者缺乏做饭的经验。考生可以参考文章的第一段的最后一句话以及第二段的全部内容来进行解答。根据文章内容可以看到,作者之所以在家得不到机会做饭是因为他们家的厨师垄断了厨房,将厨房视为自己的领地,不许其他人“侵占”。题干所提供的四个选项中,A)和D)可以首先排除掉,以为与题意不符;B)项有一定的干扰性,因为在文章的第一段的最后一句话可以看到类似的句子,即“… and had an annoying tendency to regard the pans, stove and all the kitchen fittings as her own property”,但是需要注意的是作者只是说厨师有这种倾向将厨房里的一切视为自己的财产,并不是说厨房里的一切的确就是她的财产,而且作者这么说的原因也只是为了说明他们家这个厨师不喜欢别人进厨房干活,从而也从侧面证明了C)的合理性。C)项是此题的正确答案,因为考生可以从作者在第二段所讲述的那件事来推断作者家的厨师是不许除她自己之外的所有人进厨房做饭的。第3题要考生来判断厨师对下面四个选项中哪一件事情感到不舒服,不自在。四个选项中A)和B)可以首先被排除,因为它们与文章内容明显不符;D)项稍具干扰性,但如果考生能正确解答第二题,那么也就能够推断出来这里厨师之所以感到不安并不是因为作者打破了一个鸡蛋,而是因为厨师看到有人进入了厨房,且在里面做饭,而这又是她最不喜欢看到的事情。所以此题应该选C);第4题问到为什么我们在那个星期天必须拿香蕉来当晚餐。解答这道题目必须参考前文的内容,即第二段最后一句话,“This disaster upset her so much that she locked herself in the storeroom with all the food and we had to make our Sunday dinner of bananas.”从这一句话以及联系上文可以判断,我们这天晚上之所以不得不吃香蕉当晚餐是因为厨师对我偷偷溜进厨房的行为感到十分生气,所以她把自己和所有的事物都锁到了储藏间以示反抗。根据这些可以判断此题正确答案应为A);最后一道细节题也需根据上下文来判断,答题根据在文章的第三段。作者在这一段首先说到,既然家人不愿意帮她找工作,那么她将自己去找,而且在找到之前绝不透漏半点风声。随后就说她乘家里没人注意时偷偷溜了出去,由此可见,她这么做的原因应该是她不想告诉家人她出去的目的,所以应该选D)。

最新评论

现在已有人对本文发表了评论 查看所有评论

知识体系
版权所有:CopyRight@2008-2010 浙江大学 统考英语   技术支持:资源研发中心 酷博科技