课程首页|统考文件|知识体系|在线课堂|分项练习|模拟考试|大纲词汇|英文打字练习

你已学习:

知识体系>>阅读技巧

语意题

在阅读理解测试中,语意题是不可或缺的一种题型,其主要测试考生根据上下文判断生词或短语甚至句子意义的能力,要求考生就文章中的某个单词、短语甚至句子等找出近义词或最合适的解释。一个词、短语和句子在独立存在的状态下,可以有很多不同的意思。但是,在特定的语境里,由于受到上下文的制约,它们的意义却是唯一的、确定的、排他的。在阅读中,即使是考生熟悉或认识的词汇和短语在特定的上下文中也有词义的变化、引申现象。在语意题中,命题者往往会就那些老词新义或纯超纲词汇涉及题目。因此,考生不能一味死记词汇表中的含义,而是应该根据上下文,并通过自己所掌握的语法、词汇和构词法判断词、词组和句子的正确含义。

许多人往往认为扩大词汇量是英语学习的唯一目的,以为只要词汇量够大,四级考试就能轻松通过。因而当他们遇到生词时就慌了,更有人干脆放弃词汇类问题,随便选出一个答案,去碰25%的运气。其实,我们每一个人都不可能认识所有的英语词汇,但学得好的人能够合理地对待生词。

语意题其实就是要求考生正确猜测一个词、短语或句子的意思,其方式有很多,但归结起来,各类方法几乎都与文章的上下文有关。考生看到这样的问题时,应该首先寻读文章的相关部分,把这一个词所在的句子找到,然后细细研读上下文,必要时考生还应该再做一定的逻辑推理,切不可盯着问题而不去阅读与之相关的上下文。归纳起来,猜测语意的方法有以下几种:

1. 利用文章中对词、短语的定义猜测语意

作者在写某一篇文章时,有时觉得他所用的词或短语可能不能容易地被读者正确理解,于是,他就在这一词或短语后提供一个定义。当然,这一定义的用词一般说来都是比较容易的。例如:

Such experiences are not unusual for the amateur conchologists, people who collect shells.(该例子中,读者虽然有可能不理解“conchologists”的意思,但是他们可以从给出的定义中理解该词的意思,即“conchologists”指得是“people who collect shells”。)

2. 利用文章中同义词和反义词猜测语意

在很多情况下,考生都可以通过上下文来查寻所考词汇的同义词或反义词,并以此来判断该词的正确意思。例如:

Trembling with fear, our ancestors looked into the sky and wondered, “How can we control the mysterious forces that sometimes frighten us?” Today you and I have the same human feelings as those long-ago people. We have the same awe about forces beyond our control.(该例子中,考生如果要知道“ancestor”和“awe”的正确意思,可以通过上下文来查询相关的同义所指,即“ancestor”的同义所指是“those long-ago people”,“awe”则与“frighten”相关联。)

In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid, and the summers hot and dry. (,显然,冬天和夏天的气候是截然相反的,它们的修饰词的意思也应该截然相反。“cold”与“hot”对应,“humid”与“dry”对应。因此,“humid”是“潮湿”的意思。)

3. 利用上下义关系来判断语意

上下义是一种特殊的语义关系,也是阅读理解中推测语意的一种有效途径。例如:

While radio and newspapers continue to be important, television, of all the mass media, has become the most powerful communication force.(由radio、newspaper和television考生不难猜出它们的上义词mass media的意思:大众媒体。)

4. 利用逻辑关系来判断语意

有时候,考生可以通过上下文的逻辑关系来判断语意,如因果关系、对比关系、例证关系等。例证关系就是作者利用例子来说明或解释或补充语意的,因此对于确定语意有着重要的作用;考生也可以通过一些表示因果关系、转折关系、并列关系、递进关系等词来寻找猜测语意的线索;考生也可以从表示对比关系的一些词或短语(如:as…as, like, unlike, in contrast, resemble等)中确定逻辑关系从而正确理解语意。例如:

Finally the enemy surrendered. They threw down their weapons and walked out of the home with their hands over their heads.(该例子中,考生可以从“threw down their weapons and walked out of the home with their hands over their heads”这一实例中猜出“surrendered”的意思。)

5. 利用重复信息来推测语意

考生还可以通过重复信息来推测语意,常见的重述标志有: that is, that is to say, in other words, namely, 以及破折号等。例如:

If this is happening to you, you may have what is called a phobia --- an overwhelming fear of some thing or situation.(该例子中,考生要想推测出“phobia”的正确语意,就可以参考破折号后提供的重复信息,从而得知“phobia”的意思是“恐惧”。)

6. 利用词缀来判断语意。

考生还可以通过词缀来判断语意,这就要求考生平时要掌握常见的前缀和后缀。例如:

We were told that ours was the most spacious room in the hotel .That was why we had to pay so much for it.(“spacious”是由“space (名词,空间)”+ -ious (形容词后缀”变化而来的,因此,可猜测其词义为“宽敞的”。)

语意题共分为四大类:词义理解题、词组理解题、句子理解题、指代题。

语意题常见的提问方式有:

The word “…” in the passage means ________ .

The word “…” (Line …) could be best replaced by ________ .

According to the passage, the word “…” is referred to as ________ .

As used in the passage, the phrase “…” suggests ________ .

The sentence “….” means that _______ .

The sentence “…” can be paraphrased as ________ .

What does the sentence “…” mean?

What does the sentence “…” imply?

The word “it” (Line …) refers to ________ .

The word “one” could be best replaced buy which of the following words?

Which of the following is nearest in meaning to “…”?

The term “…” in paragraph… can be best replaced by________ .

请看下面的实例分析:

【例1】

………

We have to stop dumping our wastes into the air and water. Many things we now throw away are made from resources that can be reused, but can never be replaced. Even the smoke coming out of stacks often contains chemical substances that can be recaptured and used instead of being expelled into the air.

………

Question:

The word “stacks” in Paragraph 6 probably means ________.

A) laboratories                            B) farms

C) kitchens                                 D) chimneys

本题是典型的词义理解题。考生要理解“stacks”的意思,就必须根据上下文来判断。在解答这一题时,考生可以采取替代法来解题,即用所提供的四个选项来替换要求理解的词,看题意是否合理、短语搭配是否可行。从上下文考生可以找到“smoke”这个线索词,然后根据这个线索词和常识,考生可以判断烟一般都是从烟囱出来的,因此选项D)是正确选项。而A) laboratories (实验室)、B) farms (农场)和C) kitchens (厨房)等词都不符合常理,因为如果烟是从实验室、农场和厨房冒出来的话,那就意味着那里失火了。

【例2】

………

Whenever I visit a new restaurant, I feel the same excitement that keen theatre-goers must experience on opening night. I had this feeling last Friday evening as my wife and I were taking a walk in the beautiful gardens of the restaurant shortly after we had arrived. Dinner was as excellent as we had been promised. There is no menu, for Mr. Thomton creates his meal rather as a director produces a play. Nevertheless, the various combinations of choices at each course(一道菜)are always perfect as if they were done by magic. He and his team of highly skilled helpers serve, cut and cook the food, moving about the “stage” as confidently as professional actors. The meal is as different from what one finds in ordinary restaurants as a live performance of a Midsummer Night’s Dream would be from a second-rate television production.

………

Question:

In paragraph 2, by “stage” the writer really means ________.

A) restaurant                               B) theatre

C) lake                                       D) garden

要正确解答这道语意推测题,考生同样必须结合上下文来判断。“stage”原意本为“舞台”,但从文中不难判断,这篇文章讲到的是一家独特的餐厅。在这里,没有像普通餐馆那样的菜单,餐厅老板和他的厨师们就如同导演编导一出戏剧一样来搭配他们的饭菜。而单词“stage”所在的这一句的意思大致是“汤姆顿先生和他的伙伴们自信地在自己的舞台上表演,就像专业的演员在舞台上演出一样”。根据上文我们可以知道汤姆顿先生他们工作的地方是餐馆,所以他们表演的舞台毫无疑问指的应该是“restaurant”,而不应该是戏院(theatre)、湖上(lake)或者是花园里(garden)。这样就可以判断此题正确答案应该为A)。

【例3】

……..

More and more museum directors are realizing that people learn best when they can somehow become part of what they are seeing. In many science museums, for example, there are no guided tours. The visitor is encouraged to touch, listen, operate, and experiment so as to discover scientific principles for himself. He can have the experience of operating a spaceship or a computer. The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help people feel at home in the world of science.

………

Question:

The phrase “feel at home in the world of science” (para.3) means _________.

A) “be familiar with various subjects in the world of science”

B) “do whatever one wants to do in the world of science”

C) “know without leaving home what is going on in the world science”

D) “feel comfortable in the world of science”

要正确理解这一个短语,关键在于要正确理解词组“feel at home”。根据上文读者可以看出,此处所谓“feel at home in the world of science”主要指的是上文所提到的“鼓励博物馆的参观者们通过亲自触摸、聆听、操作或者是试验来自己发现科学规律”,或者“他们可以“拥有驾驶太空船或者操作的电脑的经历”(通过上述方式),换言之,也就是通过这些方式达到让参观者们对各种科学知识了如指掌的目的。而事实上“feel at home”也的确有“精通,熟悉(be familiar with)”的意思。在此推断基础上,考生就不难判断此题的正确答案只能为A)。

【例4】

………

More land was needed for the increasing number of white settlers. In Washington, the old respect for the rights of the Indians disappeared. The old promises to the Indians were broken; the federal government began to move groups of Indians from their original homelands to other poorer parts of the country. Some Indians reacted angrily and violently to this treatment. They began to attack whit settlers, and the Indian Wars began. For thirty years, until the late 1880s, different groups of Indians fought against the injustices of the white man. They had a few famous successes, but the result of the struggle was never in doubt. There were too many white soldiers, and they were too powerful. Many Indians were killed; the survivors were moved from their homelands to different areas of the country. It was a terrible chapter in the history of a country that promised freedom and equality to everyone.

………

Question:

What does the writer mean by “the old respect for the rights of the Indians disappeared”?

A) The government had a new respect for the rights of the Indians.

B) The government began to ignore the rights of the Indians.

C) The U.S. government never had any respect for the rights of the Indians.

D) The white settlers began to ignore the law concerning the rights of Indians.

这是一道句意推断题,考生依然需要根据上下文来作出正确的解答。这句话的字面意思是“在华盛顿,过去对印第安人所怀有的尊重已经消失了”,这里需要重点了解的是此处的“尊重(respect)”究竟指的是哪方面的内容。由下文可知,“Washington”在此指的就是美国政府,而所谓的“对印第安人已经消失的重”文章在接下来的内容也对此进行了具体的阐述,即美国政府违背了过去对印第安人的承诺,将印第安人从他们自己的土地上驱逐到别的地方上去等等。根据这些内容,考生就可以用排除法来选择正确答案。A)说美国政府对印第安人的权利有了新的尊重,这与文章内容明显不符,所以可以将其排除;B)项说美国政府开始忽视印第安人的权利,这和题干所说的“美国政府对印第安人所怀有的尊重已经消失了”是相符的,所以应该是正确答案。至于其它两个选项,C)说美国政府从来都没有尊重过印第安人的权利,这与上文所说到的内容相矛盾,因为上文说在当白人刚到印第安人的地盘来定居时,还是很尊重这些本地人的,所以C)也不对;而D)项说那些白人开始忽略与印第安人权利相关的法律,这在文章中根本没有被提到,所以也可以被排除。由是可见,此题只能选B)。

【例5】

………

Many of Verne’s books were set in the future. In these stories, people made synthetic diamonds and developed a convertible automobile-ship-helicopter-plane. They received news flashes on television, worked in giant skyscrapers and rode to work on highways much like the ones we ride today. It is hard to believe that the books were written nearly one hundred years ago.

………

Question:

What does the word “They” (in “They received news flashes …”, Paragraph 5) refer to?

A) People.                           B) Stories.                   

C) Diamonds.                      D) Planes.

这是一道指代题,要求考生根据上下文来推断代词“they”所指代的内容。相对于其它语意推测题来说,指代题相对容易一点。就这道题目而言,由上文考生很容易判断出此处的“they”指的是上文所出现的名词“people”,因为这句话讲到的是“到那时,他们(即将来的人们)可以通过电视获取新闻,在摩天大楼里工作”等等。除此之外,考生也可以通过替代法来排除干扰项,将四个选项分别放到原文里去替代“they”,我们就可以发现“Stories”、“Diamonds”和“Planes”都不能和其后的谓语进行合乎逻辑的搭配。所以此题正确答案应为A)。.

最新评论

现在已有人对本文发表了评论 查看所有评论

知识体系
版权所有:CopyRight@2008-2010 浙江大学 统考英语   技术支持:资源研发中心 酷博科技