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知识体系>>阅读技巧

观点态度题

一篇文章不可避免地会反映作者的观点、态度和情绪,能否正确把握作者的观点和态度是体现学生阅读理解能力的一个重要方面。这类题型主要是考查学生能否正确理解作者的写作意图、观点及阐述文章主题时的语气或对作者所论述的对象所持有的态度等。在有的文章中,作者观点明确,文章基调清楚,而在有的文章中,作者仅仅暗示对某一问题的态度和观点,这时就需要考生在阅读时仔细琢磨。解答这类问题时,考生首先应请注意篇章中起连接手段作用的那些词语;其次应注意有些表明作者观点词汇,如形容词、动词等。通常情况下,考生往往可以通过分析作者使用的词汇或其采用的其它修辞方式来判断他的态度和语气。总的来说,这类题型的题目比较难,对于这类问题的回答,考生应从篇章的体裁着手,从文章的论述方法、语气和遣词措辞中把握作者对事物的好恶,从而了解作者的态度和情感。一般来说,在说明文中作者的态度是客观的(objective)或中立的(neutral);而在议论文中,作者的观点会显得多种多样,我们可以将其分为三大类:褒义的,贬义的和中性的。关于褒义的态度经常出现的选项包括:positive(正面的,肯定的),approving(支持的,赞同的),humorous(幽默的),informative(提供信息的,情报的),instructive(有教育意义的,启发性的),polite(礼貌的),optimistic(乐观的)等等;关于贬义的态度经常出现的选项有:arbitrary(武断的),critical(批判的,挑剔的),doubtful(表示怀疑的,不信任的),ironical(讽刺的),questioning(置疑的),negative(反面的,否定的),pessimistic(悲观的),sarcastic(挖苦的,嘲讽的),subjective(主观的)等等;表示中立的态度的选项通常有:concerned(关心的,关注的),detached(超然的,分开的,独立的),disinterested(不感兴趣的),indifferent(不感兴趣的,冷漠的),neutral(中立的),objective(客观的),serious(严肃的),sympathetic(同情的),tolerant(宽容的),warning(警告的)等等。

观点态度题常见的提问方式有:

Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

The author seems to be in favor of the idea of ________.

The author probably feels that ________.

What’s the author’s opinion of/ about …?

What is the author’s overall attitude towards …?

What does the author think of…?

The author’s attitude towards …might be best summarized (described )as ________.

In the writer’s opinion, ________.

According to the author, ________.

The author of the passage seems to be ________.

The tone of the author is ________.

How does the author feel about…?

The tone of the author can be best described as ________.

What’s the tone of the passage?

Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward…?

The word that best expresses the author’s attitude is ________.

请看下面的实例分析:

【例1】

In 1789 the U.S. government passed a law which said that the land of the American Indians could never be taken from them without their agreement. One hundred years later, however, the Indians only had a very small part of the land that originally belonged to them. How did this great injustice occur?

After 1812 white settlers began to move west across North America. At first, the settlers and the Indians lived in peace. However, the number of settlers increased greatly every year, and slowly the Indians began to see the white settlers as a danger to their survival. To feed themselves, the settlers killed more and more wild animals. The Indians, who depended on these animals for food, had to struggle against starvation. The settlers also brought with them many diseases which were common in white society, but which were new for the Indians. Great numbers of Indians became sick and died. Between 1843 and 1854 the Indian population in one area of the country went down from 100,000 to 30,000.

More land was needed for the increasing number of white settlers. In Washington, the old respect for the rights of the Indians disappeared. The old promises to the Indians were broken; the federal government began to move groups of Indians from their original homelands to other poorer parts of the country. Some Indians reacted angrily and violently to this treatment. They began to attack whit settlers, and the Indian Wars began. For thirty years, until the late 1880s, different groups of Indians fought against the injustices of the white man. They had a few famous successes, but the result of the struggle was never in doubt. There were too many white soldiers, and they were too powerful. Many Indians were killed; the survivors were moved from their homelands to different areas of the country. It was a terrible chapter in the history of a country that promised freedom and equality to everyone.

Question:

What is the writer’s opinion about the treatment that the Indians received from U.S. government?

A) He believes that the government treated the Indians very unjustly.

B) He believes that the government always respected the rights of the Indians.

C) He believes that the government cannot be criticized for its treatment of the Indians.

D) He believes that the government should pass a law to protect the Indians.

这道题询问的是作者关于美国政府对待印第安人的态度问题,这就要求考生在文章当中去寻找相关字眼或词句来证明作者的观点。在文章的第一段最后一句,作者说道“How did this injustice occur?”这里从作者的选词“injustice”可以看出作者对美国政府的做法是持不赞成态度的,认为印第安人受到了不公证的对待。由此可见,A)选项是与文章内容相符的。至于其它三个选项,B)作者认为说美国政府一直都很尊重印第安人的权利,这和文中第三段里的一句话相冲突:“In Washington, the old respect for the rights of the Indians disappeared”,所以可以将其排除;C)说作者认为不应该批评美国人对待印第安人的方式,这种说法首先和文章上文所提到的“injustice”相矛盾,也同时不符合文章的最后一句话。作者在这里这样说,“It was a terrible chapter in the history of a country that promised freedom and equality to everyone”,由此可见,C)选项也是不正确的;至于选项D)也可以被排除,因为D)项所说的作者认为美国政府应该立法保护印第安人在文章当中根本就没有被提到。所以此题只能选择A)选项。

【例2】

The fridge is considered a necessity. It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label: “store in the refrigerator.”

In my fridge-less Fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthily. The milkman came daily, the grocer, the butcher(肉商), the baker, and the ice-cream man delivered tow or three times a week. The Sunday meant would last until Wednesday and surplus(剩余的)bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted, and we were never troubled by rotten food. Thirty years on, food deliveries have ceased, fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.

The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation. A vast way of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling, drying, smoking, salting, sugaring, bottling…

What refrigeration did promote was marketing --- marketing hardware and electricity, marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.

Consequently, most of the world’s fridges are to be found, not in the tropics where they might prove useful, but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary. Every winter, millions of fridges hum away continuously, and at vast expense, busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house --- while outside, nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.

The fridge’s effect upon the environment has been evident, while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant. If you don’t believe me, try it yourself, invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers, but at least you’ll get rid of that terrible hum.

Question:

What is the author’s overall attitude toward fridges?

A) Neutral.                                 B) Critical.            

C) Objective.                              D) Compromising.

此题询问的是作者对冰箱持什么样的态度。要正确解答这道题,考生同样需要根据文章的内容,并在文中去寻找相关的字眼来进行判断。在文章的第一段,作者首先说到自20世纪60年代以来,冰箱已经成为了一项生活必需品;而在接下来的一段中,作者却说在他的童年时代,当冰箱还不是那么普及的时候,人们的生活很好很健康,食物也不会被浪费;倒是当冰箱的使用率越来越高时,新鲜食物却越发难以得到了。由此考生应该可以隐约判断出作者对冰箱并不持肯定对态度。这一判断在接下来的几段中将得到进一步的证实。在第三段里作者说冰箱对于食物的储存并没有太大的贡献,在第四、五两段里作者接着表达了自己对冰箱不以为然的态度。作者说冰箱只是对市场有促进作用,并且冰箱只是在那些气候不是十分炎热,冰箱并非是必须品的富裕国家里普及;而在最后一段,作者更是十分直接表明了自己的观点,认为冰箱对环境的负面影响是显而易见的,而对人类的幸福贡献则是微不足道的。至此,我们可以十分清楚地判断出作者对冰箱所持的是批判的、不赞成的态度。因此此题的正确答案英为B)。

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