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知识体系>>阅读技巧

标题题

在很多情况下,标题题也属于主旨题型一类。其测试目的也是为了考查考生对文章主题的理解。但是,相对于主旨题而言,标题题难度更大一点,因为标题题的选项往往是以短语的形式出现,其更具概括性,这就需要考生具备更强的概括能力。在处理这类题型的阅读理解题时,首先和做主旨题一样,考生也必须通读全文,了解文章论点的主次,抓住或概括文章的主题句,然后根据命题者所提供的选项,排除不合理选项(这些选项有时概括得过于宽泛,超出了原文的内容,有时又过于狭窄或过于偏颇,往往只是文章论点的一个次要论点,不足以概括文章的内容)。鉴于在上一讲中,我们已经详细地讲解了如何抓住主题句、如何捕捉关键词以确定文章主旨,这里我们就不再一一赘述,考生可以参考上一讲内容以了解具体的解题技巧。

标题题常见的提问方式有:

What is the best title for the passage?

The best title for this passage would be ________ .

Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

请看下面的实例分析:

【例1】

One lunchtime, May Ward was going round the local supermarket in Parkside Road, Liverpool, doing her shopping, when she suddenly slipped and fell. She was badly shaken and hurt but fortunately nothing serious resulted. It turned out that she had slipped on some ice-cream which had been spilt on the floor. Two weeks later she wrote to the firm to claim compensation(赔偿)to make up for the pain and inconvenience she had suffered. She complained that they had been negligent and careless in not keeping the floor clean. The firm denied that they had been negligent and maintained that they had a proper system for keeping the floor clean. They had given instructions that when a member of staff found a spillage, he or she was to stand by it, and call someone else to clear up the mess.

Since Mrs. Ward felt that she was entitled to compensation, she sued(起诉)the firm in the Law Court. Here the firm claimed that it did not follow, just because someone had slipped on the floor, that they must have been negligent carrying out their duties. They said that unless the customer could prove how the ice-cream came to be on the floor, and how long it had been left there before the accident happened, she had not made out a proper case against them. But the judge took a different view. He said that, on the face of it, the accident would not have happened at all if the firm had taken reasonable care. It was something which in the ordinary course of events does not happen if floors are kept clean and spillages are dealt with as soon as they occur. It was up to the firm, he said, to provide evidence that the accident did not arise from and negligence on their part. They would obviously be in a better position than the customer to establish how long the ice-cream had been spilt and explain the circumstances to the Court.

Question:

The possible title of the passage is ________.

A) May Ward and Her Compensation

B) The Law Court

C) The Supermarket

D) A Wise Judge

这篇例文是一段叙事性文字,客观讲述了Mrs. Ward在一家超市摔跤后索赔的经过。文章里并没有明显的主题句,但是考生不难看出,文章按照事件发生的先后顺序,以 “compensation”为线索,并围绕这一关键字眼而展开。所以文章的题目势必也与“compensation”相关。而此处被提供的四个选项中,只有A)选项和文章内容紧密相关;至于其它三个选项,如果选择B)的话,那么文章则必须是围绕关于法庭如何取证如何判决等内容来展开的,虽然文章中确实包含部分如上内容,但是这个题目却无法将文章的第一段概括在内,所以B)不可能是文章的题目;C)选项“Supermarket”也不符合要求,因为超市只是这篇文章中一个当事者而已,并不是文章的中心内容;至于D)选项则更不可能是文章的合适题目,法官只是出现在文章第二部分里的一个人物,不是全文的核心。所以,只有A)选项能够起到提纲挈领、贯穿全文的作用,适合充当本文的题目。

【例2】

All food chains begin with the sun, and all food chains become broken up if one of the links disappears.

All life depends on energy from sunlight. Only plants can use this energy directly. Their leaves are little factories that use sunlight to make food from water and things in the soil and air. Plants in turn serve as food for all other living things. Animals can only use the sun’s energy after it has been changed into food by plants. Some animals feed directly on plants, others eat smaller animals. Meat-eating animals are only eating plants indirectly.

What about human being? We are members of many food chains. We eat vegetables and fruit. We also eat meat and drink milk. This means the sun’s energy passes through plant to animal before it reaches us.

Nature is a great thing. Any food chain always produces enough for each of its members if it is left alone. When there isn’t enough food for any link in the chain, some of its members die off. So the balance is always kept.

Question

Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A) Energy from Sunlight

B) Plants and Animals

C) Food Chains

D) The Making of Food

这篇文章的主旨应该是显而易见的。文章在一开始就提到“食物链”这一关键词,并且在随后的内容也都是围绕这一字眼而展开,所以文章的题目中毫无疑问也应当与“食物链”相关。在此处的四个选项中,A)选项所讲的“太阳能”与本文关系不大,仅仅是在文章的第二段开头被提到了一下,所以很容易被排除掉;B)选项讲到的是“植物与动物”,此选项具有一定的干扰性,但只要考生仔细地阅读了文章,就不难发现其实文章并不是围绕动植物之间的关系来展开叙述的,而是谈到了它们之间的食物链关系,所以B)也不是正确答案;而D)选项说的是“食物的生产”虽然与文章内容有一定关系,但分明也不是文章的主旨之所在,所以这里只有C)选项与全文内容息息相关,是串连全文的线索,可以充当文章的标题。

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