课程首页|统考文件|知识体系|在线课堂|分项练习|模拟考试|大纲词汇|英文打字练习

你已学习:

知识体系>>语法部分

(一)

限定词用来限定名词所指的范围,主要包括冠词、不定代词、指示代词、数词等。本章节主要讨论冠词的用法。

冠词是一种虚词,本身不能独立使用。英语中,冠词包括不定冠词 (a/ an)、定冠词 (the) 和零冠词三种。

一、不定冠词的主要用法

1. a和an 是泛指限定词,用于单数可数名词前,泛指人或物。在首次提及的人或物前, a或an 一般表示数量“一”。a用于以辅音开头的名词前:a piece,a language,a university。an用于以元音开头的名词前:an example,an art exhibition (展览会),an early train,an honest politician, an hour。

e.g. I) It has been a rewarding lecture.

II) I work for Sony Electric, an electronics company. 我在一家电子公司――索尼电器工作。

2. a和an也可用在可数名词前表示一类人或物。

e.g. I) A friend is someone who chooses and is chosen.

II) Lend me a novel, will you?

3. a和an用在某些物质名词前表示一阵、一份、一类、一场、一种等。

e.g. I) All I had for lunch is a yogurt. 中饭我只吃了一杯酸奶。

II) What the earth needs now is a rainfall, 目前地球所需要的是一场雨。

 

二、定冠词the的意义和用法

1. 与名词连用特指某个人或物,或谈话双方熟知的彼此心照不宣的人或物。

e.g. I) Did you go to the opening ceremony? 你有没有参加开幕式?

II) The lion is a fierce (凶猛的) animal. (相当于A lion is a fierce animal.或Lions are fierce animals.)

【注】下面三句中的斜体部分就不能互换:

I) Who invented the camera?  (指类别)

II) Who had a camera?  (指同类中的任何一个)

III) Who produced cameras?  (指这一类中的所有个体)

2. 用在表示独一无二的或被认为是唯一的名词前。

e.g. the sun, the earth, the world, the universe, the Equator (赤道), etc.

【注】如果sun, moon, sky等词前有一描绘性定语,有时也可以加不定冠词。

e.g. A pale moon hung low in the sky. 一轮苍白的月亮挂在天边。

3. 用在序数词及形容词, 副词最高级前。

e.g. I) The fittest survives. 适者生存。

II) He is the most diligent (勤奋的) student in our class.

【注】在序数词前有时也不用the,而用a/an,其含义为:“又一个, 又一次,还有一个”。

e.g. He orders a second glass of beer.

4. 用在only, main, sole, same等前。

e.g. I) He is the only student who got straight As in all subjects. 他是唯一一个门门功课都得优秀的学生。

II) At the same time, it is important that you master English.

5. 用在表示海洋、河流、山脉、群岛、某些国名、某些组织机构、报纸、书籍、会议、条约、信仰等名词前。e.g. the Atlantic,the Yangtze River,the Carribbean,the Sahara,the Alps,the grand Canal,the USA,the Philippines,the Netherlands,the Yellow Sea。但下列名词前不用冠词:Life 生活周刊,Time (时代周刊),News Week (新闻周刊),Congress (国会),Parliament (议会) 等等。

6. 在大学名称前一般不用定冠词the,但有of介词短语修饰时,需用the。e.g. Zhejiang University, Oxford University, the University of North Carolina.

7. 表示湖泊的名词前一般不加定冠词, 但中国湖泊名词前常常带定冠词。e.g. Lake Baikal,Silver Lake,the Poyang Lake,the West Lake.

8. 用在复数姓氏名词前, 表示 “一家人”。e.g. the Smiths,the Johnsons。

9. 用在乐器名称前。e.g. play the guitar, play the violin.

10. 当cinema, movies, theater, radio等名词用于表示“看电影、看戏、听收音机”时,一般要用定冠词the。

 e.g. I) Would you like to go to the cinema/ go to the movies with me tonight?

II) I heard the news on the radio.

【注】television用于表示“看电视”时不用the。但指“电视机”时则用the。

e.g. I) I like watching television very much.

II) Can you turn on the television, please? (= the television set)

三、零冠词

零冠词,即不用冠词,主要表示名词的的泛指和未确定特指概念,主要用于以下几种情况。

1. 名词前有物主代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词等限定词时用零冠词。

2. 在表示人名、地名的专有名词前(不包括普通名词构成的专有名词)用零冠词。

3. 一日三餐的名词如breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper等前常用零冠词。但是如果前面有形容词修饰时用a/an。在特指某顿饭时也可以加定冠词。

e.g. I) I usually have fast food for lunch.

II) He cooked us a delicious dinner.

III) How did you like the wedding dinner?

4. 日期、月份、季节、日夜、晚上、周年等的名词前用零冠词。

e.g. I) The whole Christmas season stretches from early December to the end of the first week in January.

II) We have few classes on Saturday.

但是,如果被一个限制性定语修饰,或表示一段特定的时间,它前面就得加定冠词。

e.g. I) The building was completed in the autumn of 1998.

II) I lived in Paris for a month in the spring of 2005.

5. 运动、游戏、颜色、语言、学科等名词前用零冠词。

e.g. I) During my leisure time (闲暇时间) I like playing football.

II) He majors in physics.

6. 用作同位语或主语补足语说明独一的身份、职位、头衔或表示某种抽象概念等的名词前用零冠词。

e.g. I) Napoleon was a French soldier who became Emperor (皇帝) of France.

II) Beckham is captain of the British national football team. 贝克汉姆是英国国家足球队的队长。

7. 城市名前一般用零冠词,如不说:the New York, *the Hangzhou等。

8. 由具体转为抽象的名词前通常可用零冠词。这时该名词所表示的不是具体的建筑物或事物,而是与这些建筑物或事物有关的情形或活动,或表明其用途或作用时。

e.g. I) We had better send him to hospital in no time. (Cf. I am going to the hospital to see my teacher.

II) He finished school at the age of 18. (Cf. He is teaching in a primary school.)

其它的短语还有:go to bed (hospital, church, sea), go by train (bike, boat, plane, bus, car, taxi), in bed ( school, prison, class), at table (school, college, sea)等。

9. 在一些固定短语应用零冠词。如:at present, in effect, by heart, by mistake, in return, in fear, in haste, in stock, in peace, in trouble, on sale, on board, on guard, out of job, out of reason, out of practice, by chance, in common, in sight of, with ease, catch fire。

【注】在下列短语中用定冠词或零冠词或不定冠词的含义不同:at table (用餐)/at the table (在桌边),in front of (在……的前面) / in the front of (在……的前部),in case of (以防) /in the case of (至于),in charge of (负责) /in the charge of (由……负责),by sea (乘船) /by the sea (在海边),out of question (毫无问题) /out of the question (不可能),in the office (在办公室) /in office (执政),for a moment (片刻) /for the moment (暂时),to a point (在某种程度上) /to the point (中肯),等等。

最新评论

现在已有人对本文发表了评论 查看所有评论

知识体系
版权所有:CopyRight@2008-2010 浙江大学 统考英语   技术支持:资源研发中心 酷博科技