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(二)

本章节讲解的限定词大多数也可以作代词。

一、a lot of, plenty of, many, much, (a) few, (a) little

1. a lot of, lots of, plenty of

这几个限定词既可以与可数名词也可以与不可数名词搭配使用。

e.g. a lot of people/ duck, lots of books/ time, plenty of ideas/ money

2. much, many

much后接不可数名词,而many后接可数名词。

e.g. I) Much effort is needed to complete this task.

II) I don’t need so much money.

III) I haven’t made many mistakes.

IV) Many languages are spoken in China.

3. (a) little, (a) few

little, few前加“a”表示“有一点”,没有“a”表示“几乎没有”。(a) little后接不可数名词,而(a) few后接可数名词。

e.g. I) Hurry up! You’ve got only a little time left.

II) I don’t think he can be a good teacher. He’s got little patience (耐心) with children.

III) I enjoy my life here because I make a few friends.

IV) He is very unpopular (不受欢迎的). Few people like him.

二、some, any, no

1. some, any, no既可以用于可数名词也可以用于不可数名词,表示不肯定的数量。any

通常用于否定句或疑问句,some用于肯定句中,no用作限定词相当于not a/ not any。

e.g. I) Have you ever read any interesting books recently?

II) We have hardly any time left.

III) I must write some letters, so I need some paper.

IV) We had to walk because there was no bus.

2. some有时也可以用在疑问句中,表示说话人“期待”肯定答复。

e.g. I) – Would you like some beer?

-- Yes, I would like some.

II) Are there some letters for me? (期待肯定答复)

3. some, any与单数名词连用时表达的特殊意义

e.g. I) Any student in this class can pass the exam. (= every student, 任何一个学生)

II) Some student failed in this exam. (= a certain student, 某一个学生)

三、another, other

1. another

a) 只用于单数可数名词前,表示“另一,再一”,或单独使用。

e.g. I) There is also another way of looking at this question.

II) I don’t like this one, show me another.

b) 在表示时间、金钱、距离等的短语前,another可用于有数词修饰的复数名词前。

e.g. I) Where shall we be in another ten years?

II) You’ve got another three minutes.

c) another还可以用在以下的短语中:one after another (相继地),one another (相互),one … another … (一个……,另一个……),one way (time, etc.) or another (以某种方式/ 在某个时刻等)。

e.g. I) He broke five windows one after another.

II) They sat side by side and talked to one another.

III) He is always busy with one thing or another.

2. other

a) other既可以修饰不可数名词,也可以修饰可数名词的复数形式。作单独使用时应该用others.

e.g. I) There are other ways of doing this exercise.

II) I am busy now; ask me about it some other time.

III) Some like milk chocolate (牛奶巧克力); others prefer pure chocolate (纯巧克力).

b) the other与单数可数名词或不可数名词搭配时,表示“两个中的另一个”,与复数可数名词搭配时,相当于the others; the others指“已提到过的其余部分”。

e.g. I) She has a book in one hand, and a pen in the other (hand).

II) Each praises the other.

c) every other …可以用来表示“每隔……”。

e.g. I) Please write on every other line.

II) The doctor visits her every other day.

d) other可以用在以下的短语中:none other than (不是别人,正是),other than (除……以外;与……不同的)。

e.g. I) There was nothing to do other than wait.

II) It was none other than Mrs. Smith who killed Mr. Smith.

四、both, all

1. both表示“两者都”,用来修饰可数名词复数形式;all表示“三者或三者以上都,所有”,既可以用来修饰可数名词复数形式,也可以用来修饰不可数名词。

e.g. I) Both John’s sisters are very tall.

II) All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

2. both和all经常用作代词来用。

e.g. I) Both of his brothers are basketball players.

II) That’s all I want to say.

III) All of the students attended the meeting.

3. all可以用在以下的短语中:all but (几乎),all the + 比较级 (更加,越发),all the same (仍然),for all + 名词 (尽管…)。

e.g. I) We have all but finished the work.

II) Opening the window made it all the hotter.

III) I’m sure he will say yes, but I should ask him all the same.

IV) For all the difficulties, he succeeded at last.

五、each, every

1. every虽指“每个人”,实际上是指“全体”。each则强度“具体每个人”。

e.g. I) Every student has a dictionary. (= All the students have dictionaries.)

II) Each student has a dictionary.

2. each既可以用作代词,又可以用作限定词;every只能用作限定词。

 e.g. I) Each (person) knows what he should do.

II) Every person knows what he should do.

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