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词(二)

五、表示责任和劝告

1. should和ought to都可以用来表示责任和劝告,后者的语气重些。ought to否定式为ought not to 或oughtn’t to, 疑问式把ought放在主语前。

e.g. I) She ought to/should understand.

II) Ought we to go now? (or should we go now?) 我们必须走吗?

III) It oughtn’t to/ shouldn’t take much longer. 这该不会花很长时间。

2. must有时也可以用来表示责任和劝告。

e.g. You must go to school today.

3. 口语中也常用had better表示劝告,意为“最好做/不做某事”,后接动词原形,其否定是为:had better not do sth.,反意疑问句则用:hadn’t …。

e.g. I) You’d better spend at least 2 hours learning English.

II) You’d better not drink cold water.

III) Hadn’t you better follow the doctor’s advice?

六、表示建议

1. “Shall I/ we … ?”表示征求对方对建议的看法。

e.g. I) Shall I close the window?

II) Shall we bring anything? Some wine?

III) Let’s go, shall we?

2. may/might (just) as well表示推荐最佳方案,意为“倒不如……”、“……不也一样吗?”。may/might well的意思为“很有可能……”,注意不要混淆。两者都接不带to的不定式。

e.g. I) All the pubs are closing -- we may as well go home. 所有的酒吧都关门了,我们还不如回家呢。

II) These qualities may well make a great athlete. 这些品质很有可能会造就一名伟大的运动员。

七、表示意愿

1. you/ he/ they shall表示说话人的强烈意愿,有时甚至有威胁的含义。说话人“一定要”他人做某事。

e.g. I) You shall pay for this. 你一定要为此付出代价!

II) They shall do what I tell them to do.

2. will/ would表示动作者“愿意”。

e.g. I) I’ll do it, if you like. 如果你喜欢,我愿意做这件事。

II) If they will do this, they will probably add years to their lives. 如果他们愿意这么做,就可能延长寿命。(第一个will表示意愿,第二个表示将来。)

3. “will you/ would you …?”表示客气的建议、询问。

e.g. I) Would you mind if I close the window?

II) Would you like a cup of coffee?

4. would还可以用来表示过去的习惯。

e.g. Sometimes he would walk slowly by the dining-room doors.

八、表示勇敢

1. 情态动词dare在现代英语中并不常用,作为情态动词,意思是“敢于”,没有人称和数的变化,后接省略to的不定式,否定式为dare not(或daren’t)。

e.g. I) She daren’t tell the boss because she doesn’t want to make trouble.

II) How dare you talk to your teacher that way?

2. dare作为实意动词,意思是“敢于”,“向……挑战”,形式上有人称和数的变化,理论上后接带to的不定式,在实际运用中to也常常省略。否定式要在前面加don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t。疑问句用do/does/did提问。

e.g. I) Sally is the only person in our class who dares (to) answer Miss Thompson back. 萨利是我们班里唯一敢跟汤姆森老师顶嘴的人。

II) I have never dared to tell him about it.

九、情态动词后的某些动词形式

1. 情态动词有时可以和动词的完成形式构成谓语。

a) 用于表示推测过去某动作的可能性,可以用“can, could, may, might, must + have done”表示,其中might的可能性最小,must的可能性最大。must只能用在肯定猜测中,而can’t/couldn’t可以表示“否定”的猜测,表示“一定没有发生”。

e.g. I) He may/might have missed the train.

II) They couldn’t have gone so far。他们不可能做到这样的地步。

III) The dictionary was not there. Who could have borrowed it?

IV) You screamed (尖叫) in your sleep last night. You must have had a nightmare (恶梦) .

b) “should/ ought to + have done”表示“不该做而实际并未做的动作”,常含有批评的意思。“shouldn’t/ oughtn’t to + have done”表示“本不该做而实际却已经做的动作”,也含有批评的意思。

e.g. I) You should have stopped her watching the film. 你本来应该阻止她看这部电影的。

II) They ought to have stopped at the traffic lights. 他们本来应该在红绿灯灯前停车的。

III) You shouldn’t have told anyone about this matter.

c) “needn’t + have done”表示一种已经做过但没有必要的行为。

e.g. I) You needn’t have watered the flowers, for it is going to rain. 你本来没必要浇花,因为马上要下雨了。

II) – We went to the meeting, but it had been cancelled (取消).

-- Well, so you needn’t have gone. (本来用不着去的。即:你去了,但是本不必去的。)

注意区别didn’t need to。

e.g. – We were getting ready to go to the meeting, but he telephoned me that it was cancelled.

-- Well, so you didn’t need to go. (你不必去了。即:你没有去,也没有必要去。)

d) “would + have done”主要       用于虚拟语气中,详见虚拟语气。

2. 情态动词后可以接动词的进行式,表示对现在进行的事物的猜测。

e.g. I) He may/ be waiting for you.

II) He can’t be playing tennis in such weather.

III) He must be studying in the library now.

3. 情态动词后接不定式完成进行时,表示对过去某动作是否一直在进行的推测或评论。

e.g. I) She must have been working till small hours in the morning (凌晨).

II) She couldn’t have been swimming all day.

III) They may have been discussing the problem this afternoon.

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