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态(二)

四、现在完成时

1. 现在完成时只要用来表示:

a) 开始于过去而延续至今的动作(有可能继续延续下去)或重复性的事件。

e.g. I) Advertising has become a very specialized activity in modern times. 广告在现代社会中已成为一项非常专业化的活动。

II) She has lived here since 1997.

b) 动作的结果到现在时刻仍然存在,常与recently, just, already, yet, before, in the past few years, up to now, so far, this year, for, since等时间状语连用。

e.g. I) So far we have learned a lot about different tenses.

II) In the past few decades (十年) great changes have taken place in Hangzhou.

2. 现在完成时和一般过去时的比较:

a) 意义上的区别

两种时态的动作都发生在过去,现在完成时强调动作现在的结果;过去时着眼过去的动作或状态本身。试比较:

e.g. I) I have read this book. (说明我了解书的内容。)

II) I read this book yesterday. (叙述昨天做的一件事,与现在无关。)

b) 时间状语的区别

与一般过去时相关的状语 yesterday (morning), a month ago, earlier this month, last week/month/year/ Monday, the other day (前几天), at that time, in 1979, etc.
与现在完成时相关的状语 since Monday, so far, ever, never, up to now/ present, yet, for three days, etc.
与两者都相关的状语 Today, recently, this week/month/year/June, this morning/afternoon/evening, recently, before, once, already, etc.

c) 特殊用法

i) 在“This/ It is the first (second, third, last, etc.) time …”后用现在完成时。

e.g. It is the first time that I have traveled by train.

ii) 在“It is/ has been a long time since …”后用过去时。

e.g. It has been 10 years since I graduated from my university.

iii) 在“This is + 最高级形容词 + 名词”后的从句中用现在完成时。

  e.g. He is the most interesting person I have ever met.

五、将来完成时

将来完成时由shall (will) have加过去分词构成,主要表示将来某时已经发生的事情。如果句子中有“by + 将来的某一时间”或when, before等时间状语时,可以用将来完成时。

e.g. I) I shall have finished my homework before lunch.

II) By the end of next month, he will have lived here fore three years.

III) When we get there, they will probably have left.

IV) Hurry up, or the train will have left by the time we get to the station.

六、过去完成时

1. 过去完成时的用法

过去完成时主要表示先于过去某一时间的事件或状态,即“过去的过去”。这一事件或状态可以在过去某一时间以前已经完成,也可能从“过去的过去”某一时间一直延续到过去某一时间(甚至还可能延续下去,但与现在时间无关)。

a) 过去完成时常和after, before, by, till, when, until等引入的状语连用。   

e.g. I) I began collecting stamps in February and by November I had collected more than 2000.

II) When I woke up it had already stopped raining.

III) She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her homework.

b) 在很多情况下没有明显的时间状语,时间由上下文表示出来。

e.g.I) He went to see his boss and told him what had happened.

II) They returned earlier than we had expected.

c) 过去完成时的几种特殊用法

i) 和before连用,表示“还没……就”。

e.g. I) She cried before I had realized what was happening. 我还没有意识到发生什么事情她就哭了起来。

II) They set out before I had told them the address.

ii) “It/This/That was the first/second/third time that …” 结构中的从句,要求用过去完成时态。

e.g. I) It was the first time they had tried foreign food.

II) It was the first time that he had finished his composition in 30 minutes.

iii) 在“no sooner … than …”和“hardly/scarcely … when …”的结构中,主句中用过去完成时,从句中用一般过去时。

e.g. I) I had hardly closed my eyes when the telephone rang.

II) No sooner had we begun than we were told to stop.

iv) 与expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, think, want等动词连用时,表示过去的希望、预期、意图或愿望等没有实现。

e.g. I) I had planned to visit you, but I just couldn’t find time.

II) He had hoped to help you, but he was ill.

2. 过去完成时和一般过去时的比较:

过去完成时表示过去某一时刻,或某个动作前发生的事,即过去的过去,它着眼于显示过去发生的几个动作的先后。一般过去时只叙述过去某时刻或某时刻后发生的动作,但不强调时间顺序。

e.g. I) When he got home, his wife had already prepared the dinner. (他回家前饭已做好。)

II) When he got home, he saw a letter on his desk. (他回家后看到桌上有一封信。)

七、现在进行时

现在进行时主要用来表示:

1. 现在或现在这一阶段正在进行的动作。

e.g. I) They are making preparations for it.

II) He is showing a foreign guest round the city.

2. 一个在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。但这只限于少数动词,如go, come, leave, start, arrive, return, work, sleep, stay, do, play等。

e.g. I) We are leaving on Friday.

II) I am seeing the doctor today.

3. 有时用来代替一般现在时,表示一个经常性动作或状态,通常是为了表示一种感情(如赞叹、厌烦等)。

e.g. I) He is constantly complaining about his teacher. 他老是抱怨他的老师。

II) How are you feeling today?

III) He is always boasting. 他老爱说大话。

be间或可以用在进行时态,表示一时的表现。

e.g. I) The boy is being difficult. 这男孩正在闹别扭。(可能他平时很听话的。)

II) Frank is being a good boy today. 弗兰克今天很乖。(可能他平时并不乖。)

八、过去进行时

过去进行体和现在进行体的用法相仿,只是时间向过去推移而已。过去进行时表示过去某时或某断时期正在进行的动作。

 e.g. I) What were you doing when I called?

II) What were you doing last night at 10 o’clock?

九、将来进行时

将来进行时表示将来某时或某时期正在进行的动作。

e.g. I) I don’t know what my wife will be doing when I return home.

II) When I prepare for the college entrance examination (高考), my sister will be taking her vacation (度假) at the seaside.

十、现在完成进行时

现在完成进行时可以用来表示:

1. 表示现在某时刻之前一直在进行着的动作,这个动作可能已经完成,也可能仍在进行。

e.g. I) How long has it been raining?

II) I have been working on my paper for five years.

2. 有些延续动词如live, study, teach, work等的现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别不大,都表示延续一段时间的动作,现在完成时更强调动作的延续性。

e.g. I) I have lived here for ten years. = I have been living here for ten years.

II) How long have you taught English here? = How long have you been teaching English here?

但是,多数延续性动词的现在完成时与现在完成进行时表达的意义有所不同。

e.g. He has been writing this morning and has written four letters.

十一、过去完成进行时

过去完成进行时的主要用法与现在完成进行时的用法相仿,只是时间推移到了过去。

e.g. I) They had been waiting for half an hour before the bus came.

II) The fire had been burning for over a week.

十二、将来完成进行时

将来完成进行时将来某时刻前一直进行的动作。

e.g. I) By next year he will have been teaching English for 30 years.

II) In an hour you will have been surfing the net (上网) for 5 hours today.

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