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知识体系>>语法部分

语态也是动词的一种形式,表示主语(动作的发出者或动作的承受者)和谓语之间的关系。语态分两种形式:主动语态和被动语态。当主语为动作执行者即施动者时,动词用主动态;如果主语是动作的承受者即受动者,动词便用被动态。

一、被动语态常用的几种形式

1. 一般现在时:am/ is/ are done

e.g. I) Once environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the system to recover. 环境一旦遭到破坏,需要多年时间才能恢复过来。

II) Wheat is grown in this area.

2. 现在进行时:am/ is/ are being done

e.g. I) The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are being developed and perfected now. 具有人工智能的第五代计算机目前正在开发和完善之中。

II) The house being searched by the police.

3. 现在完成时:have/ has been done

e.g. I) A number of studies have been made on language.

II) The book has been translated into many languages.

4. 一般将来时:shall/will be done

e.g. I) We shan’t/ won’t be invited.

II) What tools will be needed in the work?

5. 将来完成时:shall/will have been done

e.g. I) I hope that everything I have told you will not have been forgotten by the next lessen.

II) Many jobs will have been “automated” (自动化).

6. 一般过去时:was/ were done

e.g. I) This book was first published in 1975.

II) When was the building completed?

7. 过去进行时:was/ were being done

e.g. I) While I was in London that year, the London Bridge was being repaired.

II) The roads were being widened (拓宽).

8. 过去完成时:had been done

e.g. I) I was shocked to hear that your house had been broken into. 听到有人非法闯入你的房子的消息,我很吃惊。

II) Production costs (生产成本) had been greatly reduced.

9. 过去将来时:would be done

e.g. I) The government promised that a new solution would be worked out within a week.政府承诺说一周之内就会提出新的解决方案。

II) This kind of job would be liked by many people, he believed.

10. 过去将来完成时:would have been done

e.g. I believed by the end of that year an advanced version of that software would have been developed, but I was wrong. 我坚信到那年年底为止,那个软件的新版本将被开发出来。但是我错了。

11. 含有情态动词的被动语态:情态动词 + be + 动词过去分词

e.g. I) As teachers we should concern ourselves with what is said, not what we think ought to be said. 作为老师,我们关心的应该是学生说了什么,而不是我们自认为学生应该说什么。

II) You may be rejected by the college of your choice. 你可能被你挑选的大学拒之门外.

12. 不定式的被动语态:to be done

e.g. I) The no-shows have to be considered when deciding the rate of overbooking. 确定超过接待能力的预定时必须考虑预定了房间却来不了的客人。

II) The project is to be completed in June.

二、被动语态的使用要点

1. 在施动者不明确或没有必要明确说明时,要用被动语态。

e.g. I) In this sense, bad things can be turned into good things.

II) We haven’t been told about it.

2. 不及物动词不能跟宾语,当然不能用于被动语态。

e.g. For three months the same thing was happened each night at dinner. (×)

For three months the same thing happened each night at dinner. (√)

3. 表示状态的动词不能用于被动语态。这类动词或短语动词有:lack,fit,mean,become,hold,resemble (相象),have,cost,equal,contain (包含),suit,last,possess,benefit,befall (降临),fail,consist of (由……组成),look like等。

e.g. I) Only 25 cents is cost by the show. (×)

The show cost only 25 cents. (√)

II) Three is equaled by one plus two. (×)

One plus two equals three. (√)

4. 如果短语动词(如see off, make up, pick up等)在意义上相当一个及物动词,其中一些也可以有被动语态。这些短语动词用于被动语态时,必须看成是一个整体,其后的副词或介词不能丢掉。

e.g. I) The children are well taken care of in the nurseries (托儿所).

II) For this he was often made fun of.

5. 在口语中get常同marry, beat, break, damage, tear, strike, hurt, paint, invite, repair, dress等动词的过去分词连用,构成被动语态。“get + 过去分词”更强调动作的结果而非动作本身,并常用来表示突发性的、出乎意料的偶然事件。

e.g. I) My new cup got broken last night.

II) The furniture (家具) got damaged when we were moving.

6. 主动句的宾语为从句时,可以转变为两种被动结构。谓语动词是admit, believe, assume (假定), expect, know, find, prove, recognize, report, say, see, suggest, suppose, understand等。

e.g. I) Jack thought that she was attractive (迷人的).

à It was thought that she was attractive.或She was thought to be attractive.

II) People say that Peter has quit his job.

à It is said that Peter has quit his job.或Peter is said to have quit his job.

7. 不定式符号to 在被动语态中不可省略。在主动语态中,如果感官动词和使役动词后的宾语补足语是动词,这个动词往往不带to,但在被动语态中to应保留。

 e.g. I) He is made to do some cleaning every week.

II) He was seen to break into the apartment (公寓).

三、主动形式表示被动意义

1. 表示事物属性的不及物动词,通常可以用其主动语态表示被动意义。这类词有:wash,write, sell, read, open, cut, lock, work, shut, record, act, clean, iron (熨)等。

e.g. I) This pen writes smoothly.

II) This book sells rapidly.

2. 某些与感官有关的连系动词加形容词可以表示被动意义,如taste,look,smell,feel,seem,sound等。

e.g. I) Good medicine tastes bitter (苦的) to the mouth.

II) My problem must sound silly to some people.

3. 在名词 + 不定式的结构中,作名词定语的不定式通常以主动形式表示被动关系。

e.g. I’ve got letters to be written. (×)

I’ve got letters to write. (√)

4. 在句型“be + 形容词 + 不定式”中,表示结果的不定式也具有主动形式被动意义的语法特征,这些形容词仅限于heavy,fit (适合的),narrow,beautiful,attractive,expensive,nice,interesting,useful,pleasant,dangerous,thick,hard,clear,smooth,comfortable (舒服的),easy,impossible,fascinating (美妙的),convenient (方便的),cheap,important,simple,strange,boring (无聊的),proper (适合的)等。

e.g. I) Relative Theory (相对论) isn’t easy to understand.

II) She is very nice to talk with.

5. 动词不定式to blame (受到指责),to compare, to let (出租)等在句子中作主语补足语时,其主动形式表示被动意义。

 e.g. I) The house is to let. 此房出租。

II) You’re to blame for what happened. (to blame 常用于表示被动意义) 你该为发生的事受到责备。

6. want,deserve,need,require和be worth等词的后面可以用V-ing分词的主动形式表示被动意义。

e.g. I) The old windows need repairing. (=The old windows need to be repaired.)

II) He is so pessimistic (悲观的) to think that life is now worth living. (worth后面的动词形式只能是V-ing分词。)

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