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(一)

分词也是动词的一种非限定形式,在句子中可以充当定语、表语、或是状语,有时也可以用在复合结构中。

分词有两种,一种是现在分词,一种是过去分词。这两种分词在句子中能担任的成分大体相同,主要是在意思上有主动和被动之分,现在分词一般有主动的意思,过去分词一般有被动的意思;有时两者表示的时间上也不尽相同。下面我们将详细地阐述动词分词的意义、功能和形式。

一、分词的句法功能

1. 作表语

分词可以用来作表语,这样用时,现在分词多表示主语所具有的特征,过去分词多表示主语所处的状态。

e.g. I) The food smells inviting (诱人的).

II) The film is very interesting.

III) I am very interested in this film.

IV) The door remained locked.

能这样用的分词最常用的有:amusing, encouraging (鼓舞人心的), confusing (令人困惑的), disappointing (令人失望的), interesting, exciting, inviting, missing, pressing (紧迫的), promising (有希望的), puzzling (令人困惑的), surprising (令人惊奇的), shocking (令人震惊的), upset (感到不安的), delighted (高兴的), devoted (投入的), disappointed (失望的), discouraged (泄气的), married (结婚的), excited, experienced (有经验的), interested, confused (感到困惑的), satisfied (满足的), tired, exhausted (疲倦的)等等。这类分词几乎已经变成了形容词了。

2. 作定语

a) 分词作定语的时候很多,单个动词分词形式一般放在被修饰的名词前。

e.g. I) Our economy (经济) is developing at an astonishing (令人惊叹的) speed.

II) This is a pressing problem.

III) Barking dogs seldom bite. 爱叫的狗很少咬人。

IV) We need more qualified (合格的) teachers.

V) It is also called “The Unfinished Symphony” (未完成的交响乐).

有时,过去分词也要求后置。

e.g. I) This is the only food left.

II) The people interviewed (采访对象) are two high school students.

b) 有些过去分词如involved, given, concerned, used等既能前置也能后置,但意义不同。

e.g. I) I noticed a concerned (关切的) look in his eyes.

II) It’s a very tricky (棘手的) situation for everyone concerned (有关的).

III) Over a given (指定的) period, the value of shares (股票) will rise and fall.

IV) She doesn’t like the watch given by her husband.

V) I bought a used (旧的) car.

VI) The textbook used (所采用的) is up-to-date.

c) 过去分词往往都含有被动的意思,但是个别的过去分词(多数是一些不及物动词)并不表示被动,而是表示已经完成。

e.g. the risen sun (升起了的太阳)/ the rising star (冉冉升起的太阳); fallen leaves (落叶); faded flowers (凋零的花); returned students (归国留学生); retired workers (退休工人); escaped prisoners (逃犯),etc.

d) 分词短语作定语,一般放在被修饰词之后,相当于一个定语从句。现在分词一般用来表示正在进行的动作,或经常性动作或现在(或当时)的状态,表示主动的意思,而过去分词可以表示或被动或已经完成的动作。

e.g. I) There are a lot of boys on the sports ground playing (= who are playing) football.

II) They built a railway leading (= which leads) into the mountain.

III) This is something unheard of (= that is unheard of) in history. 这是史无前例的事情。

IV) What is the language spoken (which is spoken) in this area?

V) Why are farmers in some developed countries (发达国家) luckier than those in developing countries (发展中国家)?

但是如果定语从句和主句时态不一致,则不能用现在分词短语替代定语从句。同时,谓语动词是be或含有情态动词的定语从句也不能用现在分词短语替代。

e.g. I) The man who came this morning is our English teacher. (√)

à The man coming this morning is our English teacher. (×)

II) Those who are late are not allowed to enter the classroom. (√)

à Those being late are not allowed to enter the classroom. (×)

III) Is there anyone who can repair the computer? (√)

à Is there anyone repairing the computer? (×)

e) 过去分词短语作定语,一般放在被修饰词之后,含有被动的意思。过去分词表示的动作或是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,或是没有一定的时间性。

e.g. I) He is a man respected (= who is respected) by all.

II) Is this the book recommended (which has been recommended) by our teacher? 这是我们老师推荐的书吗?

如果定语从句中的被动动作表示现在正在发生,或与主句谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,可以用现在分词的被动形式来引起短语作定语;如果定语从句中表示将要发生的被动的动作,可以用动词不定式的被动形式替换。(见分词的形式)

e.g. I) She said she knew the man being interviewed (采访). (表示正在发生的被动动作)

II) Having been allowed to use my computer, he jumped with great excitement (兴奋). (表示已发生的被动动作)

III) These are letters to be sent this afternoon. (表示即将发生的被动动作)

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