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词(二)

3. 作状语

分词在句中可作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、结果、让步、行为方式和伴随状况,在意义上相当于相应的副语从句或并列句中的分句。

a) 现在分词短语可以表示伴随状况,通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作,来对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬。过去分词也常可以表示伴随状况,很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况。这类状语在句中的位置比较灵活。

e.g. I) I ran out of the house shouting.

II) Please fill in this form (表格), giving your name, address, telephone number, etc.

III) Greatly interested, I asked how he created this idea.

IV) “He is right,” he said, very pleased.

【注】用作状语的现在分词和过去分词形式短语的逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。

e.g. I) Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (√) (walking是we的动作)

Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (×)

II) Standing on the top of the mountain, we could see the whole city. (√) (standing是we的动作)

Standing on the top of the mountain, the whole city could be seen. (×)

III) Seen from the hill, the town looks beautiful. (√) (seen的逻辑主语是the town)

Seeing from the hill, the town looks beautiful. (×)

现在分词表示的动作和谓语表示的动作(或状态)是同时发生的或几乎同时发生的,否则,现在分词需要用完成形式(见分词的形式)。

b) 分词短语有时可以用作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句。

e.g. I) Seeing these pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those days they spent together.

II) Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.

III) Seen from a distance, the mountain looked like an elephant.

有时分词前可以加when/ while/ until等连词。

e.g. I) Be careful when crossing the street.

II) He listened to his walkman while studying.

III) Once discovered, such mistakes should be corrected.

c) 分词短语可以用来表示原因。

e.g. I) Being ill, he wasn’t able to go to class.

II) Not knowing his address, we couldn’t get in touch with (与……联系) him.

III) He soon fell asleep, exhausted (疲倦的) by the journey.

d) 分词短语可以用来表示让步。常用although/ though, even if/ even though等连词引入,一般放在句首。

e.g. I) Although working very hard, he failed to pass the exam.

II) Though given much time, he couldn’t finish his job in time.

e) 表示结果,一般放在句末,前面可以加so,therefore,thus等副词。

e.g. I) The war went on for years, killing thousands of people.

II) My parents went to a birthday party yesterday, leaving me alone at home.

f) 分词短语也可以表示一个假设的情况,相当于一个条件从句。

e.g. I) Compared with you, we still have a long way to go.

II) United we stand, divided we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。

4. 作宾语补足语

a) 分词可以在catch,discover,consider,imagine (想象),see,hear,notice,watch,keep,find,get,have,feel等动词后与一个名词(代词)构成复合宾语。同样,现在分词和过去分词的区别主要在于:现在分词表示主动或正在进行或持续的动作的意思,而过去分词表示被动或已经完成的动作的意思。

 e.g. I) I am sorry to have kept you waiting for so long a time. (表示持续的动作)

II) I imagined myself performing before a clapping audience. (表示主动) 我想象自己在鼓掌的观众面前表演节目。

III) I will have my computer repaired this afternoon. (表示被动)

IV) It is the first time he has heard the song sung in Italian. (表示被动)

V) I hurried there only to find everybody gone. (表示完成的动作)

b) 在see,hear,feel,watch,notice等感观动词后,既可以用现在分词构成复合宾语,也可以用不带to的不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有时是有差别的。用现在分词时,表示动作正在发生(即处于发生的过程中,还没有结果),用不定式时表示动作已经发生了(即动作全部过程结束了)。

e.g. -- Do you hear someone knocking at the door? (表示正在进行)

-- Yes, I heard him knock three times. (表示完成的动作,全过程)

但是,有时用不定式和现在分词作宾语意思差别不大。

二、现在分词的完成式和被动式

现在分词也有时态和语态上的变化。以do为例:

  主动形式 被动形式
  肯定式 否定式 肯定式 否定式
一般式 doing not doing being done not being done
完成式 having done not having done having been done not having been done

1. 完成式的用法

现在分词的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前,主要用作状语。现在分词形式的否定式是直接在动词现在分词前加否定词not。

e.g. I) Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide (向导).

II) Not having been washed in the correct way, the coat has shrunk (缩水).

2. 被动形式的用法

在表示一个被动动作时,如果这动作时正在进行的动作,或是谓语动作同时发生,我们可以用现在分词的被动形式。

a) 作定语

e.g. I) That building being repaired is our library.

II) The song being broadcast (广播) is very popular with the young students.

b) 构成复合宾语

e.g. I) You will find the topic being talked about everywhere.

II) When he heard his name being called, he felt a bit nervous.

c) 作状语

e.g. I) Being asked to sing a song, she is very pleased.

II) Being protected by a thick coat, he didn’t feel a bit cold.

有时还有完成被动形式:

e.g. I) Having been give such a good chance, he worked even harder than before.

II) Having been given a map, we found our way easily.

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