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独 立 主 格 结 构

独立主格复合结构,又称为独立结构(Absolute Construction)。它在句法上游离于句子主体之外,跟主句没有任何句法联系;但在意义上却与主句紧密联系在一起,共同构成一个完整的语义环境。独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,只有逻辑上的主语,因此,它在句法上不是句子,而是一个独立于句子成分之外的独特结构形式。它由两部分构成,第一部分由名词或代词担任,第二部分由动词非谓语形式(即动词不定式、动名词或分词)、形容词、副词、名词或介词短语担任。两部分在逻辑上是主谓关系。

一、独立主格复合结构的类型

1. 名词(或主格代词)+ 现在分词 (如果表示先后关系,有时可以用having done)

e.g. I) The shower being over, we continued to march.

雷阵雨停了之后,我们继续行进。

II) Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday.

2. 名词(或主格代词)+ 过去分词

e.g. I) The duty completed, he had three months’ leave.

任务完成之后,他休了三个月的假。

II) He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.

他满脸是汗地跑进屋来。

3. 名词(或主格代词)+ 动词不定式,用来表示将来意义。

e.g. Here are the first three volumes, the fourth one to come out next month.

这是头三卷,第四卷下月出版。

4. 名词(或主格代词)+ 形容词

e.g. I) The baby began to cry again, his face very pale and his lips colorless.

那婴儿又哭了起来,他面色苍白,嘴唇发青。

II) The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside.

由于地板又湿又滑,我们呆在屋外。

5. 名词(或主格代词)+ 介词短语

e.g. I) He stood at the door, hands in pocket.

II) He went off, gun in hand.

6. 名词(或主格代词)+ 副词

e.g. Class over, all the students went out from the classroom.

8. 介词引导的独立主格结构

英语中的with也能引导出独立主格结构。有时也称为with的复合结构。

a) with + 名词(或主格代词)+ 现在分词

e.g. With the tree growing tall, we get more shade.

b) with + 名词(或主格代词)+ 过去分词

e.g. She felt nervous, with so many eyes fixed on her. 这么多眼睛盯着她,她感到紧张。

c) with + 名词(或主格代词)+ 形容词

e.g. Frank stared at his friend, with his mouth open.

d) with +名词(或主格代词)+ 副词

e.g. He stood before his teacher, with his head down.

e) with +名词(或主格代词)+ 动词不定式

e.g. With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well. 有他给我们带头,我们队一定能很好。

f) with + 名词(或主格代词)+ 介词短语

e.g. The old man stood there, with his back against the wall.

g) with + 名词(或主格代词)+ 名词

e.g. He died, with his daughter yet a schoolgirl.

二、独立主格结构的句法功能

独立主格结构作为句子中的一个语言单位,行文简单明了,功能多种多样,在句中主要用作状语、定语和主语。

1. 作状语

a) 表示时间,其功能相当于一个时间状语从句。

e.g. I) The bell ringing, all the pupils went into the classroom. (= When the bell rang, all the pupils went into the classroom.)

II) His work finished, he prepared to go home. (= When he finished his work, he prepared to go home.)

b) 表示原因,其功能相当于复合句中的一个原因状语从句。

e.g. I) Christmas Day being a holiday, the shops were all closed. (= As Christmas Day was a holiday, the shops were all closed.

II) Circumstances changed, it is necessary for you to make a new plan. (= It is necessary for you to make a new plan, since circumstances are changed. 因为情况变了,你必须制定新计划。

c) 表示条件,其功能相当于复合句中的条件状语从句。

e.g. I) I’ll take you home, your daughter having not come. (=I’ll take you home if your daughter has not come.)

II) All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours. (= If all things are considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.) 从各方面来考虑,她的论文比你的论文要更有价值。

d) 表示伴随,其功能相当于并列句中的一个分句。这种用法在英语中运用相当普遍,特别是在描绘性的文字中。这样,可使语言简洁有力,生动形象。

e.g. I) A bullet struck the soldier, who rode on, blood flowing from his side. (= A bullet struck the soldier, who rode on, and blood was flowing from his side. 子弹打在士兵的身上,他骑着马,身上流着血继续奔跑。

II) The frightened boys lay down with their eyes staring at the holes in the floor. (= The frightened boys lay down and their eyes stared at the holes in the floor.)

III) He put on his socks with the wrong side out.  (= He put on his socks and the wrong side was out.) 他把袜子穿反了。

2. 作定语。独立主格结构作定语,要放在它所修饰的名词之后,其句法功能相当于一个定语从句。

e.g. Close to the bank I saw deep pools, the water blue like the sky. (= Close to the bank I saw deep pools, the water of which was blue like the sky.) 靠近岸时,我看见几个深池塘,池水碧似蓝天。

3. 作主语,在意义上相当于复合句中的主语从句。

e.g. Mary (being) in trouble was the ample reason for my going there.  (= That Mary was in trouble was the ample reason for my going there.) 玛丽遇到了困难,是我去那儿的充分理由。

三、分词独立主格结构和状语从句的比较

分词独立主格结构和状语从句的区别在于:前者在句法结构上作为一个独立的语言单位存在,后者不能作为独立的语言单位存在,它必须附属在主句中;前者与分句之间不用从属连词,后者必须用从属连词;前者有自己独立的逻辑主语,后者的逻辑主语往往是句子的主语。试比较:

e.g. I) The letter having been written, he took it to the post.(分词独立主格)

When he had written the letter, he took it to the post.(时间状语从句)

II) No one being against, we’ll adopt the proposal. (分词独立主格)

Since no one is against it, we’ll adopt the proposal. (原因状语从句)

既然没有人反对,这个议案我们就通过了。

III) He always sings when doing his work. (简缩状语从句)

He always sings when he is doing his work. (完全状语从句)

His work being done, he always sings. (分词独立主格)

由上述句子可以看出,从属连词直接带上分词或分词短语,便构成简缩状语从句。如把主语补语加到简缩状语从句中去,就会扩展成为完全状语从句。反过来,当分词短语结构的逻辑主语和主句主语一致时,可把完全状语从句中的连词和主语统统去掉,就形成了分词短语结构。如分词短语结构带有自己的逻辑主语,也就是当分词短语结构的逻辑主语和主句主语不一致时,可构成独立主格结构。

四、不定式独立结构,-ing分词独立结构和-ed分词独立结构之间的区别

1. 不定式独立结构一般表示即将发生的动作。

e.g. I)The plan was that the two parties should first reach an agreement on the basic principle, the details to be worked out later. 计划是双方应该首先就基本原则达成协议,细节问题以后拟定。

II) We shall assemble at 10:45, the procession to start moving at precisely 11:00.

我们将在10:45结合,队伍11点整开始游行。

2. -ing分词所构成的独立主格结构往往表示正在进行的动作,且主语与-ing分词之间是

主动关系。如果要表示

e.g. I) We explored the caves, Peter acting as guide.

由彼得作向导,我们探索了那些洞穴。

II) Then, her eyes sparkling, she added, “You should see what the people eat today.”

然后她又目光炯炯地接着说:“你应当看看今天人们的饮食。”

3. -ed分词所构成的独立主格结构往往表示已经发生的动作,且主语与-ed分词之间为

被动关系。

e.g. I) All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs.

积蓄全部用完了,我们就开始找工作。

II) His homework (having been) done, Jim decided to go to the party.

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