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知识体系>>语法部分

(一)

语气是动词的一种特殊形式,它用来表示说话者对说话内容的看法的态度。在英语中,语气可以通过限定动词表示。英语的语气可以分为三种:

1. 陈述语气:陈述事实、提出疑问或表示感叹。

e.g. She is very beautiful.

2. 祈使语气 -- 提出请求、命令、劝告等。

e.g. Please hand in your exercises.

3. 虚拟语气 -- 表示主观愿望、建议、假想、虚拟、委婉的请求和祝愿等.

e.g. I wish I were a bird.

大多数句子的谓语都用陈述语气。祈使句用祈使语气。只有某几类句子要用虚拟语气,且往往用于书面语。虚拟语气的应用大致上有两类形式。

一、虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

英语的条件句有两类:真实条件句和非真实条件句。如果提出的条件是可以实现的或者与现实情况相吻合的,就是真是条件句,句子中使用一般性质的陈述语气,即主、从句中谓语使用的时态与时间相一致。如:

e.g. I) If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go fishing.

II) If there is no electricity (电), the computer can’t work.

如果提出的条件与现实相反或不大可能实现的,则为非真实条件句。这个时候就需要使用虚拟语气。如:

e.g. I) If I were you, I would consider her advice.

II) If you had listened to my suggestion, you would have succeeded.

非真实条件句中的虚拟语气在时态上的使用有其固定的规律,可以列表如下:

  条件从句 主句
与现在事实相反 过去式:did, were should / would / could / might + 动词原形
与过去事实相反 had + 过去分词 should / would / could / might + have + 过去分词
与将来事实可能相反 should / were to + 动词原形 should / would / could / might + 动词原形

e.g. I) If I knew German, I would read the book in origin.

如果我懂德文,我就要看这本书的原文了。(与现在事实相反)

II) You wouldn’t have caught cold if you had put on more clothes.

如果你多穿点衣服,你就不会着凉了。(与过去事实相反)

III) If they were to (should) act like that again, we should criticize them severely.

如果他们要再这样做,我们就要严厉的批评他们。(与将来事实可能相反)

【注1】在上面表格中,条件从句与结果主句的时态不是一种固定的搭配,二是假设主从句的内容针对的时间是一致的。如果主从句的内容所表达的时间不一致的时候,如一个是过去发生的,一个是现在发生的,那么主从句的动词形式则应根据各自所表示的时间来调整。

e.g. I) If he had received six more votes, he would be our chairman now.

如果他多得六票,他现在就是我们的主席了。

II) If we hadn’t got everything ready by now, we should be having a terrible time tomorrow.

如果现在一切都还没准备好,明天情况就糟了。

【注2】有些虚拟条件句不用if从句表现出来,而是通过介词、介词短语、动词不定式短语、抽象名词、动名词短语、形容词比较级、“名词 -- 分词”组成的独立主格结构、并列句、形容词从句、副词从句或利用上下文等形式表现出来。这类词语有without, with, under, but for (要不是,后接名词或代词), except for, Given more time, but that (要不是,后接从句),  or, otherwise (否则的话), or else (否则)等。如:

e.g. I) This change could not have taken place without much money.

如果没有很多钱的话,这种变化是不可能发生的。

II) I lost your telephone number; otherwise I would have rung you up long before.

我把你的电话号码丢了,不然我早就给你打电话了。

III) He would have helped us but that he had been short of money at that time.

要不是他当时手头拮据的话,他本来是会帮助我们的。

IV) We could have done better under more favorable conditions.

在更有利的条件下,我们是能够做得更好些的。

【注3】在书面语中,条件从句可以不用连词if,而将从句中的助动词should, had或were置于句首,从而构成倒装虚拟句。如:

e.g. I) Had we made adequate preparation, we might have succeeded.

要是准备充分的话,我们是可能成功的。

II) Were it not for there assistance, we would be in serious difficulty.

要不是他们帮忙的话,我们会陷入困境。

III) Should there be a flood, what should we do?

万一发生水灾我们怎么办?

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