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There 引导的句型

there作引导词的句子通常表示“存在”,主要由“there + be + 名词词组(+修饰语)”等构成。

一、“there + be + 名词词组”句型

1. 句型的时态

当there引起一个句子时,通常以动词be为谓语,而句子的时态变化也是体现在be动词的变化上的。

e.g. I) There is a desk in the room. (现在时)

II) There was half a thankful of petrol in the car yesterday. (过去时)

III) There is going to be a meeting tonight. (将来时)

IV) There have always been wars in the world. (现在完成时)

V) There had been a leak in the chemical container before it exploded.

(过去完成时)

2. 主谓一致性

在there引导的句子中,谓语应该和后面的主语保持数方面的一致。如果有两个或者更多的主语,它常和最接近它的那个主语取得一致。

e.g. I) Where there is a will, there is a way.

II) There are many things to be done.

III) There is only a table, four chairs and a small bed in the room.

IV) There are forty students and a teacher in the classroom.

3. 主语的非限定性

there be句型中的主语是非限定性的,也就是说不可用the, this, that, these, those等词修饰,也不可用“all / every + 名词”作主语,只有在回答时才可用everything等。

e.g. I) There is a man at the door. (√)

à There is the man at the door. (×)

II) There are all the books in the case. (×)

III) There was everyone in the room. (×)

IV) -What is there to be afraid of?

-There is everything to be afraid of. (√)

【注】在极少数情况下,这类句型中可用限定性主语(专有名词或带the的名词):

a) 在回答表示“存在”的问句时:

e.g. I) — Is there anyone coming to dinner?

— Yes, there’s Harry and there’s also Mrs. James.

II) — Have you any loose cash in the house?

— Well, there is the money in the box over there.

b) 当主语被形容词最高级修饰时:

e.g. I) There’s the oldest-looking man standing at the front door.

4. 主语的修饰语

在there引导的句子中,主语后有时有一个定语修饰。该定语可以是形容词短语、介词短语、动词-ing短语、动词-ed形式短语、不定式短语、形容词从句等。

e.g. I) There is a man with a red cap at the door.

II) There must be something wrong.

III) There is no one waiting outside.

IV) There was a ship sunk last night.

V) There is nothing to be ashamed of.

VI) There are some people (that) I’d like you to meet.

二、there作引导词的句子有时不用动词be,而用seem to be, happen to be, used to be, be likely to be, be bound to be等词组,或是用live, come, enter, stand, occur, lie等动词。

e.g. I) There happened to be nobody in the room.

II) There are likely to be more difficulties than you were prepared for.

III) There appeared to be a war between her heart and her mind.

IV) Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea.

V) Then there came a knock at the door.

三、there being和there to be

1.“there being”是指there-句型中的be采用动词-ing形式。“there being +名词词组”一般出现在书面语中,可以用作状语和介词宾语。

e.g. I) There being no further business, the meeting closed at 11:30.

因为没有别的议程,会议在11:30就结束了。

II) John was relying on there being another opportunity.

约翰指望还有另一次机会。

2.“there to be”和“for there to be”是there-句型中的be采用不定式形式,也是书面语。“there to be”可用作下列动词的宾语:ask, expect, hate, intend, like, mean, prefer, want等。 当there to be用作主语时,前面要带for.

e.g. I) People expect there to be more discussions.

II) For there to be no latecomers was unusual.

àIt was unusual for there to be no latecomers. 没有人迟到,这是不常有的事。

四、there be + no…结构

1.“there be + no + 动词-ing形式”表示“不可能……”,相当于“it is impossible…”。

e.g. I) There is no telling what will happen to them. 无法知道他们的未来。

II) There is no accounting for her behavior. 无法解释她的行为。

2.“there be + no + 名词”

e.g. I) There is no point (in) telling her anything. 没有必要告诉她任何事情。

II) There is no sense in electing her chairman. 没有理由选她当主席。

常用于这一结构的还有:there is no need, there is no use等。

 五、there引导的句型的被动式

这一用法只限于极少数动词,如consider, expect, intend, mean等。类似的句型有:there is expected to be … (据期待), there is said to be … (据说有), there is believed to be … (据信有), there is thought to be … (据认为有)等。

e.g. I) There are expected to be more budget reductions. 人们指望更多的削减预算。

II) There is said to be a commission investigating the cause of the air crash.

据说有一个调查团来调查这起飞机失事的原因。

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