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名 词 性 从 句 (一)

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Nominal Clauses)。名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。引导名词从句的连接词可以分为三类:(1)连接词:that,whether,if;这类词不充当从句的任何成分,只起连接作用;(2)连接代词:what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,whose,which等;(3)连接副词:when,where,how,why等。

一、主语从句

主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句子末尾。

e.g. I) That China is a developing country is well known to us all.

II) It is well known to us all that China is a developing country.

III) What I did is none of your business.

IV) Whether the sports meet will be held on time depends on the weather.

V) Who pays for a date can establish or reflect the roles of each person in the relationship. 约会时由谁付帐可以确立或者反映每个人在这一关系中的地位。

VI) It is not yet known just how the placebo works to heal the body.

我们仍然不清楚安慰剂到底是如何治病的。

1. It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较

It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。

而it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词that,被强调部分指人是也可用who/whom。同时,如果是强调句,去掉it is和that后,句子仍然完整正确。试比较:

e.g. I) It is this quality that makes the new secretary general perhaps the most popular

executive in the United Nations today. (强调句)

=This quality makes the new secretary general perhaps the most popular executive in the United Nations today.)

正是这一特点,也许才使得这位新秘书长成为当今联合国最受欢迎的官员。

II) It was evident that to answer the letter he needed something more than goodwill, ink, and paper. (主语从句)

很显然,要回复这封信,他需要的不仅仅是好意、墨水和纸张。

2. 主语从句不可以位于句首的五种情况:

A. if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。

B. It is said , (reported) …结构中的主语从句不可提前。

e.g. It is said that President Bush will visit our country next month. (√)

That President Bush will visit our country next month is said. (×)

C. It happens…; It occurs…; It seems…; It appears…; It turns out…等 结构中的主语从句不可提前。

e.g. It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. (√)

That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (×)

D. It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。

e.g. It doesn’t matter whether you go with me or not. (√)

Whether you go with me or not doesn’t matter. (×)

E. 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。

e.g. Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? (√)

Is that will rain in the evening likely? (×)

3. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别:

what 引导主语从句时在从句中充当一定的句子成分,如充当主语、宾语、或表语,而that 在引导主语从句时则在从句中不充当任何成分,只起连接作用。

e.g. What you heard about the matter was not the truth. (what在主语从句中充当宾语。)

That he has passed the exam is really a big surprise to us. (that在主语从句中不充当任何成分,只起连接作用)。

二、宾语从句

宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后。

1. 跟在动词后面的宾语从句:跟在动词后面的宾语从句可以由连接词that, whether, if引导,由关系代词what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,whose,which等引导,也可以是连接副词when,where,how,why等引导。有时,在宾语从句和动词之间还可以插入一个间接宾语或状语。

e.g. I) The letter says that they are leaving on the 15th.

信上说他们15号走。

II) I don’t know whether the figures are accurate. \

我不知道这些数据是否准确。

III) Have you decided whom you are to nominate as your candidate?

你已经决定要提名谁做候选人了吗?

IV) I just can’t imagine how he could have done such a thing.

我就是无法想象他是如何做出了这样的事情。

V) She reminded me that I had a meeting to attend that evening.

她提醒我晚上还有一个会要参加。

VI) He admitted to us that he had done it without the president’s permission.

他向我们承认他做这事没有得到校长的同意。

【注1】有些动词后面不能直接跟that所引导的宾语从句,只能跟动词不定式或者是动名词作宾语,这一类动词有:allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等。还有一些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that从句”结构中,常见的有envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate等。

e.g. I) I admire their winning the match. (√)

I admire that they won the match. (×)

II) He impressed the manager as an honest man. (√)

He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. (×)

【注2】若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。

e.g. I) He doesn’t think Ann is fit for the job.  他认为安不适合干那项工作。

II) I don’t believe he is telling the truth.    我认为他没说真话

2.跟在介词后面的宾语从句:跟在介词后面的宾语从句可以由连接代词或连接副词引导,也可以由连接词whether引导,是只有少数几个介词后面可以直接跟由that引导的宾语从句,如:in that,besides that,but that,except that,save that等,在其它介词后面则不能跟由that所引导的宾语从句。

e.g. I) Whether that is a good solution depends on how you look at it.

II) You can write about whatever topic you can think of.

你可以写任何你想到的题目。

III) She knew nothing about his journey except that he was likely to be away of for two weeks.

她除了知道他要出去一两个星期之外,对于他的行程一无所知。

3.跟在形容词后面的宾语从句:由that所引导的从句可以跟在“be + 形容词”后面,表示说话人对某一事物的态度并带感情色彩。能够带that从句的形容词有:anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等,这类从句有时也可以用whether引起。在概念上这类从句接近宾语,但在结构上却接近状语。

e.g. I) We are fully confident that we can surmount these difficulties.

我们完全相信我们能克服这些困难。

II) I feel very happy that you can come to our party.

我十分高兴你能来参加我们的晚会。

III) I’m not sure whether she would like the idea.

我不敢肯定她是否赞成这个想法。

【注】在某些句型中,特别是带复合宾语的句子中,that引起的从句常常移到后部去,前面用一个it作形式上的宾语。

e.g. I) I’ll see to it that everything is ready in time.

我负责使一切都按时准备好。

II) We all thought it a pity that the conference should have been cancelled.

会议取消了我们都感到很遗憾。

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