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名 词 性 从 句 ( 二 )

三、表语从句

表语从句是指在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。引导表语从句的that常可省略。另外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。

e.g. I) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.

问题是我们是否可以在这么短的时间里做好充分的准备。

II) This is why we can’t get the support of the people.

这就是为什么我们得不到人民的支持的原因。

III) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.

但事实是我们仍然落后于其它班级。

IV) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

他上学迟到的原因是因为他错过了早班车。

四、同位语从句

同位语从句就是指在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句,通常由that所引导,对名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容。同位语从句前面的先行词所包含的名词往往是抽象名词,比较常见的有:answer, appeal, belief, decision, doubt, explanation, fact, hope, idea, message, news, order, promise, proof, rumor, thought,等,另外,在probability, certainty, likelihood, evidence,等词后和在on condition, on the supposition, on the grounds, on the understands, with the exception, in spite of the fact等成语后面也有时可以用从句作同位语。同位语从句可以直接跟在名词后面,但也可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。

e.g. I) I’ve come from Mr. Black with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon. 我从布莱克先生那里来,他让我告诉你他今天下午来不了了。

II) Obviously there was little certainty that the chairman would agree to this proposal.

很明显主席同意这个提议的可能性不大。

III) She went to the meeting on the supposition that people would not assail her with questions. 她参加了这次会,心中认为人们是不会向她提许多问题的。

IV) The order soon came that all civilians should evacuate the village.

不久命令下来了,让所有的村民都撤出村子。

【注1】同位语从句和that所引导的定语形容词从句的区别:

1.that在同位语从句中是连词,只起连接作用,无具体词义,也不充当任何成分;而that在形容词从句中是关系代词,既代替先行词,同时在从句中充当一定成分。

e.g. I) The news that was spreading proved to be incorrect. (that在句中指的是news,在从句中充当主语。)

II) The news that he was resigning his position proved to be innocent. (that在此句中只起引入从句的作用,不充当任何成分。)

2.定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。

e.g. I) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,修饰先行词news,that在从句中作宾语;第二个that所引导的从句是同位语从句,对先行词news的内容进行补充说明,that在从句中不充当任何成分。

【注2】if与whether引导的名词从句的同异比较

if和whether引导的民此从句都表示“是否”,他们的相同之处在于:

1)都可以充当宾语从句;

e.g. I) I wonder if / whether you can help me.

II) Do you know if / whether the banks are open?

2) 可以与or连用:

e.g. I) They didn’t say if / whether they wanted meat or fish.

他们的不同之处在于:

1)whether能够引导主语从句,而if则不能;但当主语从句是由形式主语it所代替的话,则可以用if引导。

e.g. I) Whether she likes the present is not clear to me.

II) It’s not clear to me if / whether she likes the present.

2) whether 能够引导表语从句,而if则不能。

e.g. My main problem right now is whether I should ask for another loan. (此处不能用if来代替whether.) 我现在的问题是是否要再贷款一次。

3) whether 可以引导介词宾语从句,而if则不能。

e.g. The genes you were born with have a lot to do with whether you are confident, cheerful, and optimistic. 你与生俱来的基因与你是否自信,快乐和乐观有很大的关系。

4) whether后面可以紧接or not,if后面不能紧跟or not,而必须后移。

e.g. I) I don’t care whether or not you will agree with me.

II) I don’t care if you will agree with me or not.

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