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形容词从句(一)

形容词从句(定语从句)是指用来说明主句中某一名词或代词(有时也可说明整个主句或主句中一部分)而起定语作用的句子。被形容词从句修饰的词叫先行词,引导形容词从句的关联词有关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose, as和关系副词when, where, why等。

一、关系代词引导的形容词从句

引导形容词从句的关系代词有:who,whom(代人),which(代物),that,whose(代人或代物)。关系代词在从句中可以充当主语、宾语或定语,关系代词的数和人称要与先行词一致,它的格则取决于它在从句中充当的成分。

1.在从句中充当主语的关系代词:who,that,which引导形容词从句时都可以在从句中充当主语,指人或指物。

e.g. I) All that glitters is not gold.    闪光的不一定都是金子。

II) Do you know the man who came to see Mary this morning?

你认识今天早上来看玛丽的那个人吗?

III) Feeling loved provides invaluable emotional strength to cope successfully with almost any difficulty that (which) arises in life.

感到有人爱会赋予他们一种不可估量的情感力量,从而帮助他们成功地应付生活中出现的种种困难。

2.在从句中充当宾语的关系代词:who,whom,which,that引导形容词从句时可以在从句中充当宾语,指人或指物。

e.g. I) The son whom(who) he had turned out had gone to a distant land .

被他赶出家门的那个儿子已经远走他乡。

II) The few points which (that) the president stressed in his report are very important indeed. 院长在报告里强调的几点确实十分重要。

III) The brown outside of rice has an important B vitamins which (that) white rice lacks. 棕色大米的外表含有白色大米没有的重要的维生素B。

3.在从句中充当定语的关系代词:whose引导定语从句时通常在从句中充当定语,可以指人,也可以指物。

e.g. I) How many students are there in your class whose homes are in the countryside?

你们班有多少同学家在乡下?

II) Many people would find it disgusting to eat rats, but there are forty-two different cultures whose people regard rats as appropriate food.

很多人会认为吃鼠肉令人恶心,但世界上有42种不同文化的人认为鼠肉是适宜食用的食物。

4.介词+关系代词:关系代词在形容词从句中作介词的宾语时,在正式语体中介词通常前置,此时在限制性和非限制性形容词从句中通常不能用that,而必须用whom指人,which指物。能够用于此种结构的介词是 in,on,about,from,for,with,to,at,of,without 等。

e.g. I) A friend is someone who draws out your own best qualities, with whom you sparkle and become more of whatever the friendship draws upon.

朋友是这样的人:他会充分发挥你的最佳品质,跟他再一起使你生气勃勃,更能为友谊的发展添砖加瓦。

II) We study in a big room, the windows of which open to the park.

我们在那间大房间里学习,房间的窗户正对着公园。

【注1】非正式的语体中,介词后置比较常用。而像listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。

e.g. I) That's the book (which) he's been looking for. 那就是他一直在找的书。

II) This is the boy whom she has taken care of.

【注2】when, where, why这三个关系副词也可以用"介词+which"的方式来表示。when可以用at/in/on/during which表示,where可以用in/at which表示,why可以用for which表示。

e.g. I) I do not think a day passes in my life in which I fail to look with fresh amazement at the miracle of nature.

我认为在我生命中没有一天我不是用新奇的眼光来看待自然的奇迹的。

II) In the still, dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment or tenderness. 在我生活的寂静而黑暗的世界里根本没有强烈的伤感或柔情。

5.关系代词引导形容词从句时,要注意以下几点:

1)如果先行词是all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none等不定代词,关系代词一般只用that,不用which。:

e.g. All the people that are present burst into tears. 所有在场的人都热泪盈眶。

2) 如果先行词被形容词最高级以及first,last,any,only,few,much,no,some,very等词修饰,关系代词常用that,不用which,who,或whom。

e.g. I) II) Now try an experiment. Do something that's contrary to any negative reactions. 现在做一个实验,采取一些与消极反应截然相反的行动。

II) This is the most interesting movie that I have ever seen.

这是我所看过的最有趣的一部电影。

3)如果形容词从句所修饰的先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用that。

e.g. I) The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.

 照片中的男孩和狗都十分可爱。

II) The writer and his novels that the article deals with are familiar to us.

这篇文章讨论的作家及其小说我们都很熟悉。

4) 如果先行词是anyone,anybody,everyone,everybody,someone,somebody,关系代词应该用 who 或whom,不用 which。

e.g. Is there anyone here who will go with you?

二、关系副词引导的形容词从句

关系副词when, where, why引导形容词从句时,在从句中分别作时间状语、地点状语、原因状语,先行词总是表示时间、地点或理由的名词。

e.g. I) The days when men were the only ones to ask for dates, and women had their evenings paid for, seem to be on the wane.

那种只由男人发出约会邀请,完全由男人付帐的日子似乎越来越少了。

II) He then found a bedroom where he fell fast asleep.

然后他找了一间卧室很快就睡了。

III) But dislike is not the only reason why some cultures will not eat a certain food.

不喜欢并不是一些文化中的人不吃某种事物的唯一原因。

【注1】除地点名词后,在case, instances, situations, conditions等表示“情况”的名词后亦可接where引导的形容词从句。

e.g. I) Most of them never meet new people except in situations where they are forced to, such as meeting their roommates at the start of school.

除了在不得已的情况下,比如在学年初和他们的室友见面,大多数人从不与陌生人交谈。

II) There are clearly some cases where, although the thing advertised is not bad, it is made worse when packaged in advertising.

很明显会有这样的情况,尽管广告宣传的东西本身并不赖,可是经过广告包装后反而变糟了。

【注2】that有时可替代关系副词when, where, why引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因,并且可以省略。

e.g. I) The day (when/that) she arrived was Thursday.

她到达的日子是星期四。 

II) It's a great feeling to think you're a small part of the reason that a kid decided to give school another try instead of dropping out.

想到有某个孩子决定不辍学而是重新开始学业,而其中也有你一份小小的功劳,这种感觉真是妙极了。

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