课程首页|统考文件|知识体系|在线课堂|分项练习|模拟考试|大纲词汇|英文打字练习

你已学习:

知识体系>>语法部分

副词从句(一)

副词从句(状语从句)是指在句中起副词作用的主谓结构,用从属连词引入。按语义副词从句可分为时间副词从句,地点副词从句,方式副词从句,条件副词从句,原因副词从句,结果副词从句,目的副词从句,比较副词从句,让步副词从句等。副词从句可以放在主句前面,也可以放在主句后面,甚至可以置于主句之间。前置时,从句一般用逗号和主句分开;后置时,从句与主句一般不用逗号分隔;置于句中的副词从句需用逗号与主句分开。

一、时间副词从句

1.由从属连词before, after, since, as, till, until, once, when, whenever, while, now(that), as soon as, as (so) long as等引导的时间副词从句。

e.g. I) Once you object to a man, everything he does is wrong.

一旦你反对一个人,那么他无论坐什么事情都不对。

II) She comes talk to me whenever she feels lonely.

无论她什么时候觉得孤单,她都会来和我聊天。

III) He didn’t get married until he was forty.

他直到四十岁才结的婚。

IV) Now that you have done with your homework, you may have a rest.

现在你作业做完了,可以休息一下了。

【注1】when, while, as的区别

A.这三个词均可表示两个事件同时发生,在时间上没有先后之分。

e.g. I) As (when/while) I was walking down the street I noticed a police car in front of number 37.  当我走在街上的时候,我注意到37号前停了一辆警车。

II) One day, while (when/as) I was playing with my new doll, Miss Sullivan put my big rag doll into my lap.

一天,我正在玩我的新娃娃,这时,沙利文小姐把我的大布娃娃放在我的膝上。

B.when可指一段时间,也可指一点时间,既可表示一时性动作,也可表示持续的动作。此外,when有时含有whenever(每当)之义。

e.g. I) When I was growing up, I was embarrassed to be seen with my father.

随着我渐渐长大,当别人看见我和爸爸在一起时,我会觉得很尴尬。

II) When I joined the Navy, he “joined” too.

当我加入海军时,他也“加入”。 (一时性动作)

III) I think of my father when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another’s good fortune, when I don’t have a “good heart”.

每当我为琐事抱怨的时候,每当我妒嫉别人好运的时候,每当我没有一颗“善

心”的时候,我就想起了我父亲。(句中的三个when均意为whenever)

C.如果谈论同时进行的两个延续性的动作时,常用while。一般时和进行时都可以用。

e.g. I) The oldest boys were working in the field, while the smaller ones were playing near the house. 大男孩们在地里干活,小孩子们在屋子边玩耍。

II) Strike while the iron is hot.  趁热打铁。

D.如果表示两个短暂的动作或两个事件同时发生,最常用的是as。as还可以用来说明两种正在变化的情况。

e.g. I) As the first rays of sunlight filter over the hills of California's silicon valley, Charles Winget opens his eyes.

当清晨第一缕阳光穿过黑暗照射到加州硅谷的群山时,查尔斯·温格特睁开了

眼睛。

II) As self-acceptance grows, shyness naturally diminishes.

随着对自我表现的不断认同,羞怯感就会自然消失。

【注2】till,until,not until的异同

A.till和until可以通用。

e.g. We will stay here until / till it stops raining.

我们等到雨停了再走。

B.主句含有否定意思时,till / until含有before的意思,通常译为“直到……才……”,此时until引导的从句通常放在句首,而till引导的从句通常放在句末。

e.g. I) Jones didn’t announce the news till (before) he was sure of it.

直到自己完全确认之后琼斯才公布了这条消息。

II) Until you told me I had no idea of what he said.

直到你告诉我我才知道他说的是什么意思。

C.not until常用于it was not until … that…的强调结构,当not until放在句首时,主句的主谓要倒置,表示加强语气。

e.g. I) It was not until late in the afternoon that her got a call from her husband.

直到下午很晚的时候她才接到她丈夫的电话。

II) Not until Mary had heard the sound was she really frightened.

直到听到那个声音玛丽才真正吓坏了。

2.由名词词组the moment / the minute / the second / the instant(一……就), every time, each time, next time, the day, the year等引导的时间副词从句。

e.g. I) Stormy applause broke forth the moment she appeared on the stage.

她一在台上出现就响起暴风雨般的掌声。

II) He had impressed me that way the first time I met him.

我第一次碰到他时他就给我这个印象。

III) Every time I listen your advice, I get into trouble.

每一次我听从你的建议都会有麻烦。

3.由副词immediately, directly, instantly等引导的时间副词从句,意思均为“一……就”,“刚刚……就”。

e.g. I) I’ll give you an answer immediately I’ve finished reading your report.

我看完你的报告立即给你答复。

II) The machine will start instantly you press the button.

你一按电钮机器就会启动。

III) Directly he uttered these words there was a dead silence.

他一说出这些话,大家立刻沉默下来。

4.由关连词no sooner…than,hardly / scarcely / barely…when引导的时间副词从句,意思均为“一……就”,“刚刚……就”。如果no sooner, hardly, scarcely或barely位于句首, 主句要部分倒装。

e.g. I) Mr. Jenkins had hardly/scarcely/barely begun his speech when he was interrupted.

詹金斯先生刚刚开始讲话就被人打断了。

II) No sooner had he entered the room than the bell rang.

他刚走进房间电话就响了。

III) Hardly had he left the room when you came.

他刚走你就来了。

二、原因副词从句

原因副词从句常见的连词是because, since和as, 其中because语义最强, as最弱。 此外还有复合连词now(that) (既然), seeing (that) (鉴于,由于), considering (that) (考虑到), in that (因为), inasmuch as(由于), in view of the fact that (考虑到这个事实),not that … but that(不是由于……而是由于……)等。

e.g. I) Your suggestion was not practicable in that it required too much money.

你的提议不切实际,因为它需要太多的钱。

II) Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job.

考虑到他们才刚刚起步,他们干得算是不错了。

III) Since no one is against it, we’ll adopt the proposal.

既然没有人反对,我们就采纳这个提议。

【注1】because, since, as和for用法比较:

A.because是从属连词,表示因果关系,而且通常表示主句谓语动词的直接原因,强调原因的重要性,可以放在主句前面,也可放在主句后面。for是并列连词,并不说明主句的直接原因,只是提供一些补充说明或推断性解释, 是事后的想法,不放在句首。

e.g. I) I like such people, not because I am desperate to be buddies with a future secretary of state but because I find ambitious people entertaining, interesting to talk to, fun to watch.

我喜欢他们并不是因为我迫不及待地想成为未来国务卿的朋友,而是因为我发现雄心勃勃的人给人快乐,跟他们谈话很有趣,看着他们会很开心。

II) I decided to stop and have lunch, for I was feeling quite hungry.

我决定停下来吃午饭,因为我很饿了。

B.since和as引导原因副词从句,差别不大,二者都侧重于主句的内容,其原因只是附带说明,或指已知的事实、原因或理由。

e.g. I) Since the weather has improved, the game will be held as scheduled.

既然天气已经好转,比赛就会如期举行。

II) Other details of gender behavior are taught unconsciously, or indirectly, as the culture provides different images, aspirations, and adult models for girls and boys.

其它的那些性别特征是孩子们无意识或者间接地学会的,因为文化为女孩子和男孩子提供的形象、向往的目标和成年人的榜样不同。

C.because还常见于“it / this / that is because”结构。for,as,since均无此用法。

e.g. I) That was because I saw everything with the strange, new sight that had come to me.  那是因为我在用刚刚赋予我的新奇的眼光看待每样东西。

II) If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.

如果一个人不能和其他人步调一致,可能是由于他听到的鼓点与别人不同。

D.because可以用于回答why问句,for,as,since均不能用于回答why问句。

e.g. I) -Why don’t you tell me John had left you?

-Because I didn't want to burden you with my troubles. 

-你为什么不告诉我约翰已经和你吹了?

-因为我不想让你为我的问题烦恼。(because不能改为as, since或for)

【注2】now that和since的异同:

now that和since都可以表示“既然”、“由于”,表示已为人们所知的原因或理由,但now that的使用范围比since要窄,它有“时间”含义,说明一种新情况。

e.g. I) Now that / Since you have known the truth, we may face the problem together.

既然你已经知道了真相,我们就可以一起面对这个问题了。

II) Since most students in the class are girls, you may give them a lecture on the latest fashion. (此处since不能为now that所替代。)

既然班上大部分都是女生,你可以给他们举办一个有关最新时尚的讲座。

三、地点副词从句

地点副词从句通常由where,wherever,anywhere或者everywhere引导。

e.g. I) They went wherever they could find work.

哪里能找到工作他们就去哪里。

II) Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竞成。

四、目的副词从句

目的副词从句通常由下列词引导:目的副词从句的引导词有in order that,so (that),lest,for fear that,in case,in the hope that,for the purpose that,to the end that等。

e.g. I) We sent the letter by air mail in order that I might reach them in good time.

我们将这封信用航空寄出,为的是让他们能及时收到。

II) He jotted the name down for fear that he should forget it.

他把名字写下来省得忘了。

III) Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold.

最好多带一点衣服以防天气会变冷。

IV) The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.  老师抬高了声音就是为了让坐在后面的学生能听得清楚一点。

【注】lest, for fear that和in case 的区别:

这三个词语的意思均为“以防,以免”,从句一般都用should+动词原形所构成的虚拟语气,但for fear that和in case也可用陈述语气,而lest后面则只能跟虚拟语气。

e.g. I) We constantly worried lest thieves drive off the horses.

我们一直在担心小偷偷走我们的马。

II) They left early for fear (that) they would meet him. 

他们早早离开,以免遇到他。

III) Receipts are given in case the merchandise is defective.

提供收据以防商品有问题时有据可查。

最新评论

现在已有人对本文发表了评论 查看所有评论

知识体系
版权所有:CopyRight@2008-2010 浙江大学 统考英语   技术支持:资源研发中心 酷博科技