课程首页|统考文件|知识体系|在线课堂|分项练习|模拟考试|大纲词汇|英文打字练习

你已学习:

知识体系>>语法部分

副词从句(二)

五、结果副词从句

表示结果的副词从句可以由that,so that,so … that,such …that等词引导。

e.g. I) What have I done, that you should insult me?

我究竟做了什么,你要这样侮辱我?

II) We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.

我们走的如此匆忙以至于都忘了锁门。

III) The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were covered up in a few minutes.

雪下得如此之大以至于我们的脚印马上就被盖住了。

【注1】so that作结果副词从句和目的副词从句的区别:

结果副词从句中的结果是已经取得的,而目的副词从句中的结果尚未取得,而是一种希望或谋求的结果,因此,目的副词从句中常有情态动词,而结果副词从句则没有。

e.g. I) They wrote the notices in several languages so that foreign tourists could understand them. (目的副词从句)

他们用多种语言书写了这个告示,为的是让外国游客也能看懂。

II) He didn’t plan his time well, so that he didn’t finish the work in time.

他没有把时间计划好,结果没能按时完成这项工作。(结果副词从句)

【注2】such…that和 so…that的区别

such为形容词,修饰名词短语(such a(n) + adj. + n./ such + 不可数名词短语/ such + 可数名词复数形式),so为副词,修饰形容词短语或副词短语(so + adj. + a(n) + n.)。但当可数名词复数形式是由many或few修饰时,或不可数名词由much或little修饰时,则用so,而不能用such。

e.g. I) Smith had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near his house. (such修饰名词短语a fierce dog.)

史密斯有一条如此凶猛的狗,以至于没人敢靠近他的房子。

II) If the accent is so strong that you have a struggle to understand what they are trying to say, then that gets in the conversation. (so修饰形容词strong.)

如果地方口音太强,以至于他们所说的话太难理解,那就会妨碍你们的谈话。

【注3】有时为了强调,可以把so放在句首,此时要求主谓倒装。

e.g. So interesting was the novel that I was completely absorbed in it and forgot the time.  这部小说是如此有趣,以至于我完全沉醉于其中,忘记了时间。

六、条件副词从句

引导条件副词从句的通常有连词if和unless,此外还有as (so) long as(只要),assuming (that) (假定),given (that)(假若),if only(但愿,要是……就好了),in case(假如),in the event that(假如,倘若),once(一旦),on condition that(在……条件下),only if(只要),provided that(只要),suppose / supposing that(假如)。条件副词从句可以分为真实条件副词从句和非真实条件副词从句,真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气,而非真实条件句中的谓语则用虚拟语气。

e.g. I) As long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll find a way to overcome the difficulty.

只要我们不灰心,我们就能找到克服困难的方法。

II) Suppose that we can’t get the necessary equipment, what shall we do?

假如我们弄不到必要的设备,那我们应该怎么办?

III) If I hadn’t take your advice, I would have made a serious mistake.

如果没有听从你的建议,我就犯了大错了。

【注】在if条件副词从句中,通常用一般现在时表示将来时间,而不用will或shall,只有在表示意图、意愿等意思时才用will或shall。

e.g. I) We’ll arrive at five o’clock if the plane take off on time.

如果飞机准点起飞的话我们将在五点钟到达。

II) If you will (重读) go to bed so late, no wonder you’re tired.

如果你偏要这么晚睡觉,自然就会感到疲倦。(此句中will表示意愿)

七、让步副词从句

让步副词从句可以由引导词though, although, even if (even though), if, as, while, whatever (no matter what), wherever (no matter where), whoever (no matter who), whichever (no matter which), whenever (no matter when), however (no matter how), whether…or, not that等引导。

e.g. I) We’ll try to finish the work in time though (although) we are short of manpower.

虽然我们缺乏人力,但我们还是要设法按时完成这项工作。

II) Even though note writing may take longer, some pretty busy people do it, including George Bush.

尽管写便笺会多花一些时间,但一些非常忙的人也在写便笺,其中就包括乔治·布什。

III) We’ll carry on the work whether we can get the machines we need.

不管我们是否可以弄到需要的机器,我们都要将这项工作继续下去。

IV) Whoever you (may) be, you have no right to do such a thing.

不管你是谁,你都没有权利这么做。

【注1】as引导的让步副词从句常见于正式文体中,用以强调让步意义。此时从句的补语或状语置于句首。也可用though或that来代替as。 其结构为:形容词 / 副词 / 动词 / 分词 / 名词 + as / though / that。应特别注意,单数可数名词前不能用定冠词或不定冠词。

e.g. I) Patient as he was, he had no intention of waiting for three hours.

尽管他很耐心,但他也没有打算等三个小时。

II) Much as I would like to help, I have other work I must do.

尽管我很愿意帮忙,但我也有其它必须完成的工作。

III) Genius as (though) she was, she was quite unassuming.

虽然她是个天才,但她一点儿架子都没有。

【注2】whether…or 可以引导让步副词从句,当动词为be时,往往用原形式虚拟语气,这是相当正式的用法。

e.g. I) It is important for men to respect a person who holds a position of responsibility and authority, whether that person is male or female.

对于男人来说,尊重有职有权的人是很重要的,无论那个人是男性还是女性。

II) They usually stressed the refining of the child's technique, whether it be their fingers on the keyboard or their strokes in the water or on the tennis court.

他们通常强调改进孩子的技巧,无论是琴键上的指法,还是游泳的姿势,或者是网球场上的挥拍动作。

八、比较副词从句

表示不同程度比较的副词从句通常由than引起,而表示同程度的比较的副词从句通常由as引起。一些常用的句型有:the more … the more …,no … more than …,more … than …,as …as …,not so / as …as …等。

e.g. I) The project as completed earlier than we had expected.

这项工程完成得比我们预计的要早。

II) The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.

你锻炼得越多,身体就会越健康。

III) There is as much water in tube A as (there is water) in tube B.

A试管中的水和B试管中的水一样多。

IV) The house is three times as big as ours.

这个房子是我们的三倍大。

V) Food is to men what oil is to machine.

食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。

九、方式副词从句

方式副词从句通常由as,as if,as thought,how,the way等引导。

e.g. I) I remember the whole thing as if it happened yesterday.

整个事情我都记得,如同它是昨天发生似的。

II) When in Roman, do as the Romans do. 入乡随俗。

III) Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

有时,我们就像我们的父母教育我们一样教育我们的孩子。

【注】as if和as though的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大,汉译常作“仿佛……似的”,“好像……似的”;有时,as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,。

e.g. I) They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.

他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

II) It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.

看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)

III) She would then smile somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me, as if awaiting a thank you.     然后她会如同期待什么似的朝我或者艾伦微笑,似乎等待我们说谢谢。

最新评论

现在已有人对本文发表了评论 查看所有评论

知识体系
版权所有:CopyRight@2008-2010 浙江大学 统考英语   技术支持:资源研发中心 酷博科技