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知识体系>>语法部分

It

在英语中,it有许多不同的用法,它既可以用作代词(如人称代词、非人称代词),也可以用作引导词(作形式主语和形式宾语),还可以用来构成强调句型。

一、人称代词型it

作人称代词的it不仅可以指物或事,也可以指人。它的主要功能是指代,代替一个词、词组、或整个句子,以免重复。

e.g. I) A long time ago life was very different from what it is today. (it指代life)

II) I love playing tennis. It keeps me fit. (it指代playing tennis)

III) He understood French, but I was not aware of it. (it指代he understood French)

IV) – Who is there?

-- It’s I/me. (it指代人)

V) He has a baby; he loves it (or him or her). (it指代the baby)

二、非人称代词型it

it也可以用作非人称代词,常常用作句子的主语,此时它并不指代上下文中提到的人或物,而是用来表示天气、日期、时间、温度、距离等。

1. 指时间

e.g. I) It is half past three now..

II) It is ten years since we got to know each other.

2. 指天气、季节

e.g. I) It was raining when I left.

II) It will be winter in three weeks’ time.

3. 指距离

e.g. I) It is an hour’s walk from my home to the school.

II) How far is it to your office?

4. 指环境或情况

e.g. I) It’s terrible – I’ve got so much work that I don’t know where to start.

II) How is it going with you?

三、先行词it

1. 作形式主语

a) 代替不定式

e.g. I) It is impolite to talk loudly in public places.

II) It’s difficult to translate this sentence.

关于it代替不定式作主语的句子,请参见不定式的讲解。

b) 代替动词-ing形式

e.g. I) It’s nice meeting you.

II) It’s no good talking to him.

用it代替动词-ing形式作主语的句子较少,主要用在以no good, no use, useless, worthwhile (值得的), no help等词语作主语补足语的句子中。

c) 代替由that、连接代词或连接副词引导的名词从句

e.g. I) It is strange that he did not come at all.

II) It seems that you know a lot about our new teacher.

III) It doesn’t matter what you do.

IV) It makes no difference whether he will go or not.

【注1】作主语的不定式、动词-ing形式或名词从句,可以放在句首,而不用it. 但是为了避免句子头重脚轻,用it作形式主语更为普遍。

e.g. I) To talk loudly in public places is impolite.

II) Talking to him is no good.

III) What you do doesn’t matter.

【注2】下面句子中的名词从句不能放在句首,必须用it引入;如果转换句型需要采取其他方式。常用于这种句型的动词有:seem, appear, happen, turn out等;常用于这种句型的形容词有:certainly, likely, unlikely等。

e.g. I) It seems that John is not coming tonight. (= John doesn’t seem to be coming tonight.

II) It appears that their dreams have come true. (= Their dreams appear to have come true.

IV) It is likely that it will rain tomorrow. (= It is likely to rain tomorrow.)

2. 作形式宾语

a) 代替不定式

e.g. I) He feels it his duty to help others.

II) I find it interesting to be a tourist guide (导游).

b) 代替动词-ing形式

e.g. I) I don’t think it worthwhile spending too much time and energy on this task.

II) Our teacher thinks it no good learning without practice.

c) 代替that引导的名词从句

e.g. I) Didn’t I make it clear that I wasn’t coming?

II) He takes it for granted that he will pass the exam. 他想当然地认为自己肯定会通过考试的。

四、强调型it

英语中,为了突出句子中的某一成分,达到强调或使人特别注意该成分的目的,人们常常用“It is/was … that/ who …”句式把整个句子分割成前后两个部分,使之各自有自己的谓语动词,中间由that或who连起来成为一个新居子,人们习惯上称这一句式为“强调句型”。强调句型可以用来强调除谓语动词外的大多数句子成分。如果强调的中心成分是人的话,可以用that或who来引导,否则则用that引导。

1. 强调主语

e.g. I) It was the President himself who spoke to me.

II) It was John who gave May a watch at Christmas.

2. 强调宾语

e.g. I) It was a watch that John gave May at Christmas.

II) It was May who John gave a watch at Christmas.

3. 强调宾语或主语补足语

e.g. I) It was light yellow that Jack painted his desk.

II) It is Big Head that he is called.

4. 强调状语

 e.g. I) It might have been in the office that I left my handbag.

II) It was when she was about to go to bed that the telephone rang.

III) It was because I wanted to buy a dictionary that I went to town yesterday.

【注】强调句型还可以以疑问句的形式出现。

e.g. I) What is it that made you so angry?

II) Why is it that you are so angry?

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