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主 谓 一 致

主谓一致是指:1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致;2)意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致;3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语。一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数,但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

一、并列结构作主语时的主谓一致

并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,但是当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数, and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。同时,如果and连接的两个单数名词前若用each,every,no修饰,该名词短语作主语时,谓语动词也要用单数形式。

e.g. I) To mean to do something and to actually do something are two separate things.

想干一件事和真干一件事是两回事。

II) The food and the textile industry depend mainly on agriculture for raw material.

粮食工业和纺织工业主要靠农业提供原料。

III) The iron and steel industry is very important to our national economy.

钢铁工业在国民经济中起重要作用。

IV) No book and on pencils found in the schoolbag.

书包里没有书和钢笔。

二、主谓一致中的就近原则

1.当there be句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。

e.g. I) There is a teacher and some students in the classroom.

教室里有一名老师和一些学生。

II) There are four books and a pencil box in his bag.

在他的包里有四本书和一个铅笔盒。

2.当either… or… 与 neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。

e.g. I) Either he or his children are to take part in the party.

不是他就是他的孩子们来参加这个晚会。

II) Neither my wife nor I am to persuade my daughter to change her mind.

我和我爱人都没法说服我的女儿改变主意。

III) Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

这儿有一支笔,几个信封和一些纸给你。

三、谓语动词与主语的一致

在主语是单数的情况下,如果主语后面跟有with,together with,like,except,but,no less than,as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致,即谓语动词仍用单数。

e.g. I) An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.

一位专家和几位助手被派去协助这项工作。

II) Justice, as well as the law, demands that these criminals be severely punished.

法律和正义都要求严惩这些犯罪分子。

III) No one except his two daughters is interested in the program.

除了他的两个女儿之外没有人对这个节目感兴趣。

四、在下列情形下谓语需要用单数

1.代词each和由every,some,no,any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every时,谓语需用单数。

e.g. I) Each of us has something to say. 

II) Any of these books is helpful in your English study.

2.当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。

e.g. Little Women is a book known to lovers of English.

3.表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数(用复数也可,意思不变。)。

e.g. I) Two days was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

II) Ten million dollars is not a small amount.

五、由指代意义决定的谓语单复数

1.代词what,which,who,none,some,more,most,all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。

e.g. I) Which is your book?

Which are your books?

II) None of the books are easy enough for us.

None of this worries me.

2.集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。

e.g. I) The committee meets twice a month.  委员会一月开两次会。

The committee are divided in opinion.  委员们意见有分歧。

II) The audience was enormous.  观众人很多。

The audience were greatly moved at the words.  听了这话听众都很感动。

3.有些名词,如variety,number,population,proportion 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。

e.g. I) What is the population of Europe?  欧洲人口有多少?

One third of the population here are workers.  这里三分之一的人口是工人。

II) A number of students have passed the exam.  很多学生通过这次考试。

The number of students in this college has increased a lot.

这个学院的学生人数大大增加了。

六、与后接名词或代词的一致

1. 用half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。

e.g. Most of his money is spent on his daily necessities.

Most of the students have passed the exam.

2.在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。

e.g. I) Many a person has ever seen this movie.

II) More than one person has had that kind of experience.

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