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倒 装

英语句子的语序通常是主语位于谓语之前。倒装指的是将谓语动词置于主语之前的一种语法现象。倒装语序又分为全部倒装和部分倒装。将整个谓语完全置于主语之前叫作全部倒装。

e.g. I) Up went the balloon. 气球飞了。

II) The door opened and in came a group of students in fancy (奇异的) dresses.

只把谓语的一部分(通常为动词、情态动词或be动词等功能词)提到主语之前叫作部分倒装。部分倒装更常用。一般现在时和一般过去时中没有助动词时,在倒装句中应根据人称、数、时态加do, does或did。

e.g. I) Not only is there wisdom in knowing when to keep you mouth shut; there are practical advantages as well. 知道何时保持缄默不仅明智,而且还有实际好处。

II) Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

一、状语前置引起的倒装

1.方位词 (in, out, away, up, down, off等)、象声词 (crack, bang, hiss等)在句首,谓语动词是come, go, fall等表示位置移动的动态词,主语又是较长的名词词组,常全部倒装。

e.g. I) On the hill stands a castle (城堡).

II) Crack went the gun and the hawk crumpled out of the sky.

枪啪得一声,鹰从空中落下。

【注】如果主语是代词,则主谓语不倒装。  

e.g. I) Off they go! 他们离开了。 

II) Down it flew。它刷地飞了下来。

2. 当here, there, now, then, such等副词位于句首,谓语动词为be, go, come等时,引起部分倒装。

e.g. I) Here comes the bus!

II) Now comes your turn. 现在轮到你了。

III) Then came a new difficulty.

【注】如果主语为代词,则主谓语序不用倒装。

e.g. Here you are。

3. 由so引起地表示前面所说地情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(肯定句)。

e.g. I) I am quite willing to help and so are the others.

II) If Jeff can do it, so can I.

【注】如果一个句子只是重复前面一句话的意思,尽管是用so开头,语序也不要转换。

e.g. “It was hot yesterday.” “So it was!”  “昨天天气很热。”“是很热!”

4. 由neither, nor引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(否定句)。

 e.g. I) If you won't go, neither will I.

II) He didn’t finish his homework. Nor (Neither) did I.

5. 当以never, little, not only, rarely, seldom, not until, hardly, scarcely等否定词或带否定含义的词语作状语位于句首时,主谓将引起部分倒装。

e.g. I) Never in his career as postman had he known that address.

他当邮递员以来,还从未见过那样的地址。

II) Little did I realize that I had made such a big mistake.

我一点也没有意识到我犯下了这么愚蠢的错误。

III) Hardly/Scarcely had she fallen asleep when the phone rang.

她刚刚睡着,电话就响了。

IV) In no case could I agree to such a proposal. 我决不会同意这个提议的。

【注1】如果句首的否定词否定的是主语则不引起倒装。

e.g. I) Little help can be expected from Peter. 从彼得那儿几乎得不到什么帮助。 

II) Hardly anyone loved the Italians except the French.

除了法国人几乎没有人喜欢意大利人。

【注2】如果句首状语的否定意义与后面的另一否定词或其他词语所抵消,不引起主、谓语部分倒装。

e.g. Not infrequently they go abroad. 他们不是不常去国外。

6.only 修饰状语位于句首时引起部分倒装。

e.g. I) Only in this way, can you learn English well.

II) Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

直到被请了三次之后他才到达会场。

【注1】如果句首的only所引导的词组不是状语,一般不倒装。

e.g. Only human beings are capable of feeling the emotion of love.

只有人类才能感受到爱这种情感。

【注2】当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,以关联连词not only …(but also)开头的句子或从句结构往往引起部分倒装,但如果置于句首的not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,则不可用倒装结构。

e.g. I) Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

II) Not only you but also I am fond of music.

7.关联从属连词so… that中的so位于句首引起局部倒装,如果谓语动词为be则全部倒装。

e.g. I) So frightened was she that she dared not to say anything.

她是如此害怕以至于她什么都不敢说。

II) So depressed did he feel that nothing would cheer him up.

他感到如此沮丧,什么也使他开心不起来。

【注】so用作替代词位于句首,表示“也是”时,也引起局部倒装,如谓语动词为be 则全部倒装。如果句首so 表示“是的,确实”,即在简答中表示同意对方的意见,则不引起倒装。

e.g. I) I love popular music, so does my sister.

II) I am an English teacher, so is my husband.

III) –It’s starting to rain.

--So it is.

二、比较副词从句和让步副词从句中的倒装

1.让步副词从句由as, though等引起的倒装, 结构为形容词/副词/动词/分词 + as /though + 主语+ 谓语。

e.g. I) Famous as he is, he is also easy-going.

II) Unarmed though he was, he bravely went forward to meet his enemies.

虽然他没带武器,但他勇敢地前进去迎击敌人。

    2.比较副词从句中的倒装主要出现在than后的结构以及the more … the more结构中。

e.g. I) These people sold 10 percent more insurance than did the average representative.

这些人出售的保险要比一般的销售代表高百分之十。

II) The more problems you make clear, the greater will be your achievement.

你弄明白的问题越多,你取得的成绩就会越大。

三、虚拟条件句中的倒装

在虚拟语气条件句中,如果从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。

e.g. I) Had you come a little earlier, you would have met him.

II) Were it not for their assistance, we would be in serious difficulty.

如果不是他们的协助,我们就会陷入困境。

III) Should there be a flood, what should we do?

万一发生水灾,我们怎么办?

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